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1/ v/-./ 


■ J 

Joseph King Goodrich 

/?:^f Jl„is 



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Our Neighbors: 
The Chinese 

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ewe Eitigliut€ ftetittf 

Bt Jobsph Kmo^GooDBioH 

A handy-wlume striei, treoHng in an inieresHng, 

informing vxiy the history and eharatieri»-' 

HcMoJ** Our Neighbors of other lands 





Each, 16mo, illustiated, $1.25 net 

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CTOR in Female Costume 

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Our Neighbors: 

The Chinese 



Sometims Prrfessor in ike Impmal CoUege, Kyoto 





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CopyrigJU in England 
AU rights reserved 




MAY 14 1975 j 


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I. Who ABE THE Chinese ? 1 

n. The Refubuc of China 16 

m. Myths about Cbeation and otheb 

Things SO 

IV. Chinebe Litebatubb and Foia-lobb . 45 

V. Education: Fobmeb and Modbbn . 59 

VI. Home and Familt Life 72 


VJLU. Plbasubes of Life 101 

IX. Social and Official Classes 114 

X. CouBT Life: Ancient and Modebn . . 187 

XI. The People of the Eighteen Pboyinces 140 

Xn. The Mongols and the Manchus 154 

Xin. The Tibetans and theib Countbt . 167 

XIV. The Mohametans 180 

XV. How the Chinese Came to be Known to 

THE Rest of the Wobld .... 194 

• XVI. A Chinese Boy's Life «07 

XVn. A Chinese Gibl's Life 220 

XVm. Tbaveuno in China 281 

XIX. How THE Chinese Live 243 

XX. The Wobld and the New Republic . 254 

Bibuogbaphy 263 

Index 271 

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Actor in Female Costume FtotUufucM 

Pagoda near Canton fatm§ 909$ 40 

Main Street, Mukden 90 

A Fruit and Vegetable Market 96 

Women with Small Feet 118 

A Public Garden, Mukden, Manchuria 124 

Manchu Mauaoleum: Interior of Grounds . • • • 138 

Mausoleum of a Manchu Ruler 156 

Manchu Mother and Children 158 

Manchu Woman in Full Dress 160 

Manchu Geisha 164 

Manchu Married Woman: The Headdress Indicates 

the Fact 166 

Street Scene, Mukden: Temple Wall £16 

Railway Stotion, Mukden: Water Carts .... 234 

Night-soil Gatherers 246 

An Official Reaidenoe 24§ 

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Our Neighbors: 
The Chinese 



IT is easier to ask this question than it is 
to answer it. Of course, if we mean 
nothing more than the people of the pres- 
ent Republic of China it is not difficult to 
give some sort of a reply which will be satis- 
factory to most inquirers. It is true even 
when we think of the Chinese Republic in 
its widest range and include not only the 
actual Chinese themselves, but all the other 
peoples who are officially citizens of the Re- 
public. Some of those citizens who do not 
answer to the name Chinese, have always 
given more or less trouble, and at the 
present moment, citizens of Mongolia and 
of the extreme northwestern and western 
provinces of China, are showing anything 
but a cheerful willingness to respect the new 
government and to become peaceful citizens 
of the youngest republic, but the oldest 

government in the whole world. To this 


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2 OUR neighbors: the Chinese 

subject we shall return in a subsequent 

There are two ways by which answers of 
a kind may be given to the question, " Who 
are the Chinese?** One refers to the posi- 
tion amongst the rest of mankind that near- 
ly all the citizens of China are given by 
those who make the study of mankind their 
proper study. Ethnologists do not hesi- 
tate to say that practically all the inhabi- 
tants of the Chinese Eepublic belong to the 
yellow race; that they are Mongoloids. 
That is true; but do we know just whence 
the yellow-skinned people came originally? 
No, we do not. 

I am afraid we must give up the idea that 
all the seventeen hundred million inhabi- 
tants of the world came from just one 
original Adam and Eve, and that the 
tremendous differences which are to be noted 
in anatomy, skin, hair, and many other 
physical details, are all just the effect of 
climate, physical and climatic surround- 
ings, conditions of life, etc. Even the 
strictest Christian evolutionist has to admit 
that it is probable the development of the 
human being from a lower type of animal 
life, took place in several different parts 
of the globe, and it is reasonable specula- 
tion to say that probably this evolution of 
the very first individuals of the several 

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types of mankiiidy took place at times which 
were widely separated, if we measure by 
years or even by centuries. 

Now as to speculation, it is interesting 
to read what such a brilliant ethnologist as 
Count Oobineau says of the evolution of 
the three great types of mankind. He con- 
sidered it sufficient to limit the varieties of 
mankind to that number, and he distin- 
guished them as the white, the yellow, and 
the black. Other ethnologists have not 
been satisfied with this limitation of the 
numbers of primary types, and have felt it 
to be necessary to add the red and the brown. 
The former of these permits us to put the 
many tribes of American Indians — all in 
the North, the Central and the South Amer- 
icas — into a separate group from the yel- 
low; the latter permits us to separate the 
peoples of southern Asia from the blacks 
of Africa and some of the Pacific Islands. 

It seems more satisfactory to divide the 
peoples of the earth into five races than to 
limit them to three; because it is difficult 
to make ourselves believe that the ancient 
civilization of Central and South America 
was that of a people who were precisely the 
same in all respects as the yellow races of 
Asia. So, too, it is almost impossible to 
put some of the brown peoples of British 
India, Southern Asia, and the East Indian 

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4 OUR neighbors: the CHINESE 

Islands, in the same class as the trae Cau- 
casian, while it is repnlsive to think of them 
as precisely the same as the typical African 

Count Gobineau put forward the theory 
that the yellow race was originally created 
in America. Of course he did not pretend 
to say in just what part of our continent 
the great miracle of evolution from brute 
to human was performed, yet he seemed to 
think there were some advantages for the 
peoples of the western part of North Amer- 
ica over those of the eastern ; and that these 
advantages were shared by the Peruvians 
and some other peoples. In taking this 
strange position, Gobineau intimated that 
the yellow race has a tremendously long 
record in point of time, and in that respect 
was a race of great dignity. Because, if 
that theory is correct, the migration of the 
yellow people to Asia must have been at a 
time so long ago as to have made no marks 
which at present survive in the myths and 
legends of the Chinese or their predecessors 
in any part of Asia. 

The yellow emigrants are supposed to 
have made their way across the narrow 
Bering Sea into Kamchatka; then by the 
way of Siberia until they had skirted the 
Khan Oula and the Altai Mountains which 
do seem to separate Siberia from Mongolia. 

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After that they passed down through Tur- 
kestan and the countries west of the moun- 
tains called Tian Shan until they reached 
the Transcaspian District of the Russian 
Empire on the eastern shores of the Cas- 
pian Sea and the northern parts of Bokhara, 
Afghanistan, Persia, etc. 

It is probably well, although purely 
speculative, that such migration should be 
borne in mind, because it does tend to give 
a clue as to why certain of those Mongolians 
in later and historic times were found in 
places from whence they came. It also has 
some tendency towards explaining why the 
theory of another eminent ethnologist may 
be correct. 

That theory is now to be discussed. 
Professor Terrien de Lacouperie was a 
Frenchman who went to China about the 
middle of the nineteenth century to engage 
in commerce. He studied the language and 
eventually turned from commerce to pursue 
ethnological research, and when he returned 
to Europe he became professor of compara- 
tive philology of the Southeast Asiatic 
languages in University College, London. 

He advanced the theory that somewhere 
about the twenty-third century before Christ 
a large body of people began a migration 
eastward from the country south of the Cas- 
pian Sea and made their way through the 

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passes of the Tian Shan, through Eastern 
Turkestan on into the region of the Gobi 
Desert, and continued their march until 
they had reached the upper waters of the 
Yellow River, op Hoang-ho, and then di- 
verged towards the south into the country 
which we call China. 

To support his views, Prof. Terrien de 
Lacouperie points to what he considers a 
connection between the written language of 
the Akkadians and that of the Chinese. 
The former people may be somewhat loosely 
defined as the Babylonians, for in the cunei- 
form inscriptions the phrase "the land of 
Sumer and Akkadia^' appears to have de- 
noted Babylonia in general. It is true that 
there is a curious similiarity between some 
of the Akkadian words and those of China 
in both sound and sense : that is, if we are 
perfectly sure about our reading of the cune^ 
iform characters. 

In certain other matters there is too 
a resemblance between the southwestern 
parts of Asia and the extreme eastern por- 
tion thereof. Some of these likenesses are 
detected in the earliest known religious be- 
lief of the Chinese and the old Babylonians; 
as well as in social matters and rudimen- 
tary science. Susiana was the same as the 
Shushan of the Bible. Another familiar 
name is Elam, and from the time of Darius 

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I, the city Snsa, the capital, was the chief 
residence of Achsemenian kings. It was 
certainly a fruitful and well-watered coun- 
try and had access to the Persian Gulf. 

There were twelve feudal chiefs or " Pas- 
tor Princes'^ who governed under the su- 
preme authority of the king. Now, it is 
said that there was a certain ruler over a 
portion of what was much later the Empire 
of China. This ruler is known as Emperor 
Yao, and he is declared to have reigned 
from 2085 to 2004 B. C. He is likewise 
said to have appointed twelve " Pastors ^' to 
superintend the affairs of his dominion, as 
if in imitation of the " Pastor Princes '* of 

In that latter country the people in an- 
cient times worshiped one supreme god 
and honored six subordinate deities. In 
China, during the time of Yao and for years 
after him, the people worshiped Shang-ti, 
the one great ruler of heaven, and six 
" Honored Ones,'^ although it is impossible 
to determine precisely who or what those 
six were. When Chinese history became 
reasonably established as something firm 
upon which to base speculation, that is, 
probably with the beginning of the Chou 
dynasty (1122 to 225 B. C), certainly some 
time before that dynasty was overthrown, 
the knowledge which the learned men in 

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8 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

China had of astronomy and medicine was 
so nearly like that of the people of Mesa- 
potamia, that it is hardly safe' to say there 
could not have been some communication 
between the two peoples in earlier times. 

Another curious thing is that the Chinese 
a very long time ago saw the probabilities 
in the way of development which would 
come from a system of internal waterways 
and canals to link together the great or 
smaller rivers. The similarity between this 
scheme and that of Susiana^ by which the 
people of the latter made their way com- 
fortably to the Persian Gulf, is very strik- 

So far as the physical probabilities of the 
great migration which has been mentioned 
are concerned, there was nothing absolutely 
impossible about it. Authenic history tells 
us of some remarkable treks. Consider, for 
example, the migration of six hundred 
thousand Kalmuk Tartars from Russian 
territory to the Chinese borders, about 
which De Quincey tells us, and the moving 
of a body of people whom we afterwards 
called Chinese, from Babylonia to eastern 
Central Asia, is not at all incomprehensible. 

Yet there is always the doubt which nat- 
urally comes when we think of such a peo- 
ple leaving a home in every way so de- 
sirable to face the apparent difficulties of 

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penetrating the bordering mountains and 
into the great unknown that was beyond 
those stern and forbidding hills. Another 
view which seems to discredit Prof. Ter- 
rien de Lacouperie^s theory is that within 
the time of authentic history, there have not 
been in the Caspian Sea region any con- 
siderable numbers of people who appear to 
be ethnically allied to the Chinese. Of 
course the intervening centuries, many 
scores of them perhaps, may have obliter- 
ated all such resemblance from the few peo- 
ple of the same type whom the emilgrants 
left behind them. 

But if we know nothing as to who the 
Chinese are ethnologically, we may safely 
say that they are not the aboriginal inhabi- 
tants of the country which we call China. 
They themselves have no such name for 
themselves as that. They have a number of 
others, however, with all of which we need 
not here burden ourselves. Chung-kwoh, 
" the central or middle country or kingdom," 
is the commonest, and that is the one se- 
lected by the Republic. From this comes 
naturally "men of Chung-kwoh," 

As I have explained in another place (see 
"The Coming China") this Middle King- 
dom did not, I am sure, mean that the 
Chinese assumed their country to be the 
absolute center of the whole world and all 

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10 OUR neighbors: the Chinese 

the rest an unfortunate fringe of outside 
lands. To their mind the word " middle '' 
conveyed rather the idea of a fortunate land 
whose people were satisfied to preserve a 
conservative, central course between the ex- 
treme of warlike aggression on the one hand, 
and of slothful repose on the other. 

To be sure the Chinese did, until a few 
years ago, call other peoples " Outside Bar- 
barians.'* This came from a sense of 
superiority to the hordes of savages who sur- 
rounded them on all sides except the south. 
In that directiori there were people whom 
the Chinese mi^ht have regarded as their 
equals, had it not been that the Himalaya 
Mountains made an almost impassable bar- 
rier so that there was for ages no intercourse. 
As far as including the peoples of Europe 
in the list of " Outer Barbarians," one can 
hardly wonder at the Chinese doing so after 
reading of the way the first of those 
strangers behaved, when intercourse be- 
tween the Chinese and Europeans was re- 
sumed in the fifteenth century, after having 
been interrupted for more than five hundred 

The Chinese used to take great pride in 
calling themselves " Sons of Han," or " Men 
of T'ang." The first of these favorite ti- 
tles came from the fact that Liu P'ang as- 
cended the throne in B. C. 206, taking for 

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himself the title Kao Ti, " August Emperor," 
and gave his dynasty, which he then es- 
tablished, the name of Han, from the small 
state in the greater district of Shensi over 
which he had ruled, and the river of the 
same name near which he was bom. As the 
Han may properly be considered the first 
national dynasty, it is natural that the peo- 
ple should have taken pride in calling them- 
selves " Sons of Han." The people of the 
great southern province, Kwan-tung — we 
call it Canton — were an exception, for they 
always refused to speak of themselves in 
that way. 

Eight centuries later another famous 
dynasty ruled over China. It was the 
T'ang and it lasted for two hundred and 
eighty-nine years, from 618 to 907 A. D.. Its 
first emperors were statesmen and generals 
of marked ability and the Chinese opinion 
of that group of sovereigns is shown by the 
fact that one of the names they sometimes 
call themselves by was " The men of T^ang." 
I do not know that our Chinese neighbors 
will discard those patriotic and honorable 
names, now that they have so eflfectually 
put away all things of the past; yet I rather 
hope they will not. 

Giving up as an unsatisfactory and un- 
necessary task, the effort to establish, the 
primary origin of the Chinese, we seem to 

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be safe in saying that before tbey settled 
down into something like permanent occu- 
pation of the modem province Shensi, they 
were a nomadic people. I think it is not 
at all unreasonable to point to the roofs of 
Chinese houses as an indication, if not a 
proof, that they borrowed the form which 
their tents took. If a large square tent is 
supported by poles at the four comers, the 
material will droop from the poles to the 
center of each side and until at the middle 
of the side it begins to rise again towards 
the next post. That sharp upward turn at 
the comers and the sag along the sides is 
called a " catenary curve," and it is an un- 
mistakable feature of all Chinese permanent 
structures. The similarity between the 
eaves of a Chinese building and the sag of 
a tent, can hardly be accounted for in any 
other way. 

Another indication of the nomadic life 
of the Chinese in absolutely prehistoric 
times, is the fact that among the most primi- 
tive ideographs of their written language^ 
there are some which fully warrant the as- 
sumption that they had many sheep and 
cattle. Later ideographs, chronologically, 
indicate that the Chinese were agricultur- 
ists. Inasmuch as flocks of sheep and herds 
of cattle have been almost unknown in 
China proper for centuries, the story told 

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by the earliest ideographs and the evolution 
of the agricultural ones, is more than inter- 

An ideograph, it may be explained, is a 
written symbol, usually derived from a pic- 
ture of a concrete object, which contains in 
it^lf a complete idea. Of course, as learn- 
ing advances, these ideographs are devised 
to convey abstract ideas. But the ideo- 
graph always stands as the very antithesis 
of an alphabetic language. It is probably 
true that the use of those ideographs served 
to retard the development of the Chinese 
beyond a certain point. This, however, is a 
subject to which we must return in a later 

Even if the Chinese nomads did traverse 
the almost uninhabited regions of Western 
Central Asia, where there was practically 
nobody to oppose their progress, we may be 
quite sure that when they had crossed the 
mountains and desert, and emerged into the 
province of Kansuh they promptly found 
the inhabitants ready to fight with them in 
defense of their homes* For the Chinese 
were not the first inhabitants of that coun- 
try. " Aborigines " is a word that is loosely 
used, and it is impossible to say that the 
people whom the Chinese found in Shensi 
were absolutely aborigines. That province 
of Shensi is just west of the great bend of 

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the Yellow River which is here forced by 
the Peling Mountains to turn sharply to 
the east after coming down in an almost 
straight course from the Mongolian fron- 
tier and the Altai Shan. 

The Chinese conquered the aborigines^ it 
is true, but they were rarely guilty of a di- 
rect effort to exterminate on a wholesale 
scale, and they pro^bably remained quietly 
in Shensi for some time. Then they pushed 
themselves farther and farther south and 
west; but they ^ere strangely slow in get- 
ting into the east and southeast or the rich 
coast provinces. Eventually, however, they 
became masters of China : that is the eight- 
een provinces of what the people meant when 
they spoke of Chung-kwoh; it did not for- 
merly include Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, 
and the outlying possessions toward the 
west and northwest. I do not know if the 
name is now used inclusively or not; but I 
suppose it is. 

At any rate when the famous Chinese his- 
torian Sz-ma Ts^ien appeared, in the first 
century B. C, he declared that during the 
later years of the Chou Dynasty, or from 
827 to 255 B. C, the records of his country 
become reliable, and his opinion has been 
confirmed by some bamboo slips bearing in- 
cised writing — done with a style — thai; 
were found in A. D\ 284 in the grave of a 

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feudal chief who had lived in North China 
daring the fourth century B. C. In Sz-ma 
TsMen's time, the eighteen provinces were 
not organized as they were subsequently, but 
the Chinese State had been firmly estab- 

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ALTHOUGH we have been accustomed, 
and quite properly, to think of China 
as the oldest continuous imperial govern- 
ment in the world, as a matter of fact the 
united China proper, that is the eighteen 
provinces which are considered when a true 
Chinese speaks of the Middle Kingdom, be- 
came a united State only about two thou- 
sand years ago. The great Emperor Shih 
Hwang Ti (often spoken and written of 
as Ch'in Hsih Huang) effected the union 
of the various feudal states that had main- 
tained a sort of independence until that 
time. He then divided the country into 
thirty-six provinces and to each he appointed 
three high rank officials to administer the 
affairs of that particular province. The of- 
ficials were held to be directly responsible 
to the emperor himself, and the system then 
established continued without material 
change until the overthrow of the Manchu 
dynasty which abdicated February 12, 1912. 
This statement in no way impugns that 
which has been made by so many writers 
as to the great age and continuity of the 


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Chinese nation. Its history is remarkable 
and for many reasons. Even if a wonderful 
and radical change has recently taken place 
in the form of government, that does not 
break the sequence of the historical record. 
There were other great States which rivaled 
China in the matter of antiquity: Egypt, 
Babylonia, Assyria, and later Home, for ex- 
ample. They were created by remarkable 
men; they were for a time contemporaneous 
with China; they reached the zenith of their 
development in extent and power; but they 
passed away while China continued to exist, 
and still exists with a new lease of strength 
and possibilities which promises well for the 

If a republic in form of government and 
in being representative of the whole people 
is something entirely new in China, it can- 
not be truthfully said that the idea in cer- 
tain senses is altogether an unknown one to 
the Chinese. The people of that land have 
always been surprisingly democratic in some 
respects, and all authorities agree in say- 
ing that while the Chinese gave little heed 
to what was happening on and around the 
throne at the capital — wherever that might 
be for the moment, — they insisted upon hav- 
ing more than a merely feeble voice as to 
how the affairs of their own province, city, 
or village should be administered. They 

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18 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

did not actually demand popular repre- 
sentation in the way that is coming to them 
now, but they long ago showed a spirit which 
— when properly trained and fairly con- 
trolled — will probably fit them to exercise 
republican rights in a surprisingly satis- 
factory manner. 

Socialism has never attained such popu- 
larity as to make it a prominent factor in 
the spirit of the Chinese people or in their 
institutions; yet there are several recorded 
instances of a disposition on the part of 
some fairly strong men in China to give to 
the people more consideration than they 
had. The most conspicuous example of 
this sort of socialism, was that proposed by 
Wang An-shih during the reign of Emperor 
Shen Tsung (Chin Tsong II, A. D. 1068 to 
1086) of the great Sung dynasty. 

That Emperor himself was so much im- 
pressed with what this man suggested that 
he did try to put the radical ideas into prac- 
tise. The principal features of this reform 
were, First : Taxes to be paid in produce and 
manufactures; the surplus of produce and 
commodities to be purchased by the Govern- 
ment. They were then to be sent to those 
parts of the Empire where there was a de- 
mand and sold for a reasonable profit. The 
direct intention of this scheme was to do 
away with middlemen and unscrupulous 

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merchants. Second: the Oovemment was 
to advance money to the farmers who had no 
means or insafficient capital; these loans 
to be repaid after the harvest. The rate of 
interest on such advances was to be two per 
cent, per month. This, of course, seems to 
ns usurious; but it should be borne in mind 
that money sharks in China were then, as 
they are likely to be now, extorting from 
fifty to two hundred per cent, from any un- 
fortunate farmer who fell into their clutches. 
Third: conscription was to be introduced. 
The Empire was to be divided into districts 
according to families, and each family with 
more than one son was to give one for mili- 
tary service. In times of peace those men 
were to pursue their customary avocation; 
but when war broke out they were to be 
called to the colors and must be ready to go • 
at once to the seat of war. Fourth: until 
the time of An-shih all public works had 
been constructed by compulsory labor. It 
was now proposed to levy an income tax 
upon each family in order to provide funds 
for these public works. Of all the reforms 
this is said to have met with the most vio- 
lent opposition. The experiment was tried 
for a time, but it did not prove successful 
and before long the laws promulgated by the 
Emperor to carry into effect the proposed 
reforms were annulled. It will be remem- 

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20 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

bered that Eaug Yu-wei, as adviser of the 
late Emperor Ewang Hsu, advocated some- 
what similar reform and secured a favorable 
hearing from his imperial patron. If he 
had not managed to get out of the country 
he would have been executed, as were so 
many of his friends, by the great Empress 

The flag which has been adopted by the 
Chinese Republic itself indicates how far 
from their past the new rulers at least hope 
they have gone. The old flag was an elon- 
gated triangle, called technically a pennant, 
its base towards the staff, yellow in color, 
with a notched or saw-tooth edge, and in the 
center a curving, twisting, snarling dragon. 
It was typical in every way. The color 
stood for the rulers, the hated Manchus ; the 
edge typified the rough attitude that the 
Manchu Government adopted towards all 
people in every direction; the dragon was 
peculiarly Chinese, breathing forth fire to 
consume whatever stood before it. It was 
not a pretty banner, no matter how we con- 
sider it : in shape, color, or design ; and as a 
whole it was as blatant as the threats which' 
the Peking Government used to make, for 
there never was one of them that the au- 
thorities could enforce. 

The new flag is appropriate in form, for 
it is that which has been adopted conven- 

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tionally by all nations as an ensign, and the 
design is emblematic. There is just a little 
imitation of the Star Spangled Banner, be- 
cause the five stripes indicate a union of the 
many principal factors in the new state, as 
do the thirteen stripes in our flag stand 
for the thirteen original colonies which 
banded themselves together to form the 
United States of America. 

But the five factors in the Chinese Re- 
public are not distinct yet co-ordinate states. 
They tell us that the Chinese Empire was 
and the Chinese Republic is a coalition of 
several peoples who are all of Mongoloid 
type. To the topmost stripe of the flag the 
Chinese themselves have laid claim, thus as- 
suming precedence over the Manchus; there- 
fore the red stripe stands for the 407,253,000 
people of the eighteen provinces of China 
proper. It is rather strange that they 
should have chosen this color for them- 
selves, because they are not really a martial 
people and red is the recognized sign of the 
god of war. The next stripe from the top 
is yellow and it is to represent the 16,000,- 
000 people of Manchuria. The pale blue 
color of the next lower stripe is for the 
2,600,000 inhabitants of Mongolia. The 
next stripe, white, is for the 6,500,000 people 
of Tibet, while the black stripe at the bot- 
tom is for the 1,200,000 peoples of Chinese 

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Turkestan^ etc., nearly all of whom are Ma- 

I have taken my figures from the last edi- 
tion of the Statesman's Year Book, but I 
entirely agree with the Hon. W. W. Rock- 
hill, who is now our Ambassador to Turkey, 
but who was for several years Minister to 
Ghina, and before that a great traveler 
throughout the Chinese Empire. Mr. 
Rockhill thinks that the population of 
China proper is probably less than 270,00(K,- 
000 at the present time. I add that my own 
opinion is that when a proper census is 
taken of the Chinese Republic in extenso (if 
that time ever comes) it will be found that 
the 433,553,030 shrinks by much more than 
one hundred millions ; and this opinion has 
been confirmed by several Europeans, gen- 
erally Germans or Frenchmen, who have re- 
cently had better opportunity for travel in 
the interior of China than I. Even so, in 
the matter of population the Chinese Re- 
public at once takes a prominent place in 
the world, and the character of the popula- 
tion is high. 

When we come to areas, it is easier to tell 
more precisely what the extent of the 
Chinese Republic is, because geographical 
divisions are more readily defined and meas- 
ured than is population. The eighteen 
provinces of China proper have an area, 

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estimated It is true, as is the case with all 
other divisionSy yet fairly exact, of 1,532,- 
420 square miles, Manchuria 303,610, Mon- 
golia 1,367,600, Tibet 463,200, Chinese 
Turkestan, etc., 550,340, a grand total of 
4,277,170; as against that of the United 
States including all outlying possessions of 
3,699,076 square miles. So that the newest 
Republic in size is decidedly the largest in 
the world. 

China's right to include all of Manchuria 
is disputed by Russia and Japan; and Rus- 
sia would certainly declare that the Chinese 
Republic has little or nothing to say about 
Mongolia, and little, if anything, about 
Eastern Turkestan, etc., yet it is to be hoped 
that when the great Powers of the world 
have followed the example of the United 
States in recognizing the Republic of China 
and have shown a disposition to admit and 
uphold her lawful claims, all of these out- 
lying portions may be restored absolutely. 
Not only so, but there will probably be 
evinced a willingness to restore such places 
as Weihaiwei, Eiaochau (Tsintau), and 
perhaps others that are not of much use or 
benefit to the European Powers that have 
secured possession of them. 

People of the United States are naturally 
inclined to judge of our Chinese neighbors 
by the coolies, laundrymen, house servants, 

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shop-keepers^ and others who are conspicu- 
ous; and because of the preponderance of 
the first two classes to set their standard 
of Chinese intelligence at a rather low point. 
This is most unfair. I do not mean to 
intimate that our Chinese neighbor^ are 
conspicuous for education^ but there are 
really very few Chinese, above the peasant 
class, who cannot read and write a little. 
Their ideographic language makes it possi- 
ble for a person to learn the few score, or 
possibly few hundreds, characters that are 
useful in his particular trade, without his 
bothering himself to learn a great number 
of those which specifically pertain to some 
other occupation. The market gardener 
knows how to make the symbols that stand 
for his wares; the laundryman has command 
of his own special vocabulary, and so with 
others. In a certain sense the same limita- 
tion exists among our own lower classes, 
whose vocabulary it will be found is aston- 
ishingly limited; and even people who are 
properly credited with a fair education do 
not as a rule make use of more than a few 
thousand words. 

It would take very much more space than 
is at my command to give a complete descrip- 
tion of the natural features of the Great 
Republic of China. Every phase of natural 
scenery is to be found in some portion or 

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another thereof. Along the eastern coast 
there are smiling valleys in which the culti- 
vated fields come down so far that their 
protecting dikes are lapi>ed by the sea 
waves; or there are stretches of clear sandy 
beach^ where bathing is to be enjoyed to the 
fullest, or there are bold, rocky headlands 
that stand as a menace to the unwary navi- 
gator or as protecting giants, according as 
one is disposed to look upon them. 

Back from the coast in the innumerable 
river valleys, agriculture of every kind is 
carried on with an incisiveness which makes 
the beholder marvel that man, with the ap- 
parently inadequate accessories which the 
Chinese agriculturalist possesses, can have 
done so much. Yet it has to be admitted 
that when the crops are measured by pounds 
or bushels or whatever the standard may be, 
and the value computed by prices the farmer 
receives, the return is absurdly inadequate. 
There ought to be some great missionary 
work done among the agricultural classes 
of China to enable them to get nearer one 
hundred cents value for each dollar's worth 
of labor, seed, and fertilizer that they put 
into their fields than they now secure. But 
it will be a long and discouraging task, 
because the conservatism of the Chinese 
I)easant is almost adamantine. To change 
from the time-honored ways of his forc- 

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26 ouE neighbors: the Chinese 

fathers will seem to him both useless and 
actually dishonorable. Yet this is only one 
of the changes that must come to Bepublican 

In picturesqueness the river valleys of 
China need fear no comparison with the 
rest of the world. Their lower reaches will 
seem tame, because they flow through such 
wide stretches of flat country, yet this is 
markedly true of the Yang-tze only. The 
southernmost river of some importance, is 
the White River that flows past Canton 
and empties into the bay between Hong- 
kong and Macao at Boca Tigres, '^The 
Tiger^s Mouth." This is just below 
Whampoa, which place itself offers much of 
interest both historically and scenically ; as 
soon as one enters the river it recalls the 
episodes of a century ago, when Europe was 
insisting upon the right to trade and to trade 
as contributed most to the pockets of 
British and other alien subjects. The his- 
tory will arouse varying sensations accord- 
ing to the sentiments of the traveler. 
Thence up that same river, which bears 
many Chinese names, to the head of naviga- 
tion there is abundance of that which is 
picturesque in every way. 

As it is practically impossible to ascend 
the great Yang-tze River from mouth to 
source, it is well now that we are in the 

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region where it begins^ to pass from the 
headwaters of the White River into the 
monntains of Tibet. It will be noticed that 
this, the greatest river of Asia, as well as 
the Mekong that flows down into the Shan 
States and French Indo-China, are very 
neighborly, and furthermore that the great 
Brahmaputra, is not far away. 

In that great world of mountains, the 
extreme eastern portion of the Himalayas, 
there is everything that the seeker after a 
mingling of the picturesque with a spice of 
danger can ask. The Imperial Government 
of China never did succeed in establishing 
firmly its rule so as to make traveling per- 
fectly secure for the explorer in this region, 
and the Republic will probably have a good 
deal to do before it can accomplish that 
same desired end. Still it need not be fatal 
to go there and there remains something 
for the explorer yet to do, besides enjoying 
mountain scenery that is wonderful. 

If one were to combine the Chinese rec- 
ords of the Hoang-ho, we call it the Yellow 
River, with the accounts that interested and 
observing strangers have given us, it would 
be a long and pathetic story. Most properly 
have the Chinese people given to that way- 
ward river the pseudonym which means 
" China's Sorrow," because neither wars nor 
oppressions have begun to bring a tithe of 

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the sorrow that the river has caused the 
people from time almost immemorial. Its 
name "Yellow" is well chosen because of 
the muddy color of the water ; but what does 
that earthy tint imply? 

Follow up the stream from its present 
mouth on the Gulf of Chihli and note the 
bare hills^ and then the bare mountains. 
Their sides are now scarcely more than 
naked rocks; yet there was a time far back 
in history when those hills and mountains 
were covered with! dense forests. Had 
there been a glimmer of the science of forest 
conservation in those remote ages, there 
would be none of those terrible tales of 
" China's Sorrow *' sweeping to death a mil- 
lion or more people in one flood. The 
money value of the damage wrought by the 
river cannot be computed. But the sense- 
less destruction of forests has always been 
the greatest curse of the Chinese people, and 
nothing is being done even now to compel 
them to mend their ways. 

After rivers, one naturally thinks of 
lakes. Of these there are no great ones in 
any part of the Republic. The Chinese 
themselves admire almost extravagantly 
what is called the Poyang Lake, but it is 
really nothing more than the spreading out 
of the Yang-tze River into a great depres- 
sion south of the river and near the city 

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of Hankow. Yet this lake figares largely 
in art and poetry. 

Scattered all over the Republic there are 
many small mountain tarns, that would be 
popular and attractive were it not for the 
naked hills which surround them. What 
the future may bring forth it is hazardous 
to say, but it is possible that as the rule of 
authority extends and facilities for travel- 
ing in the interior become greater, some 
of these mountain lakes may become as pop- 
ular summer resorts as are several of the 
Japanese lakes. 

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FUH-HI is said to have been the first 
earthly sovereign who ruled in any 
part of the domain that we call China. His 
accession is placed at some time between 
3,322 to 2,852 B.C., and with him com- 
mences the period which the Chinese know 
by the title of " The Time of Highest An- 
tiquity.'^ Yet before Pnh-hi back to the 
creation of heaven and earth, there was an 
interval of at least five hundred thousand 
years. Because of a similarity in the sound 
of that first earthly sovereign's name 
" Puh '^ with the name which the Chinese 
give to Buddha, "Fuh^' or "Poh," some 
Chinese declare that they were one and the 
same person, but it is needless to say this 
confusion is without a semblance of founda- 

There are innumerable myths and legends 
connected with the creation to be found in 
Chinese literature. This is just what we 
should be lead to expect of a people so in- 
tensely superstitious as practically all of 

the Chinese were, and as many of them are 

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even now. Yet not all of them were so 
childishly superstitious. One of the best 
and cleverest of their historians, Yang Tse 
who is often quoted by the earliest Ameri- 
can and European writers about China, de- 
clared : " Who knows the affairs of remote ^ 
antiquity, since no authentic records have 
come down to us? He who examines those 
stories will find it difficult to believe them, 
and careful scrutiny will convince him that 
they are without foundation. In the 
primeval ages no historical records were 
kept. Why then, since the ancient books 
that described those times were burned by 
Tsin, should we misrepresent those remote 
ages, and satisfy ourselves with vague 
fables? However, as everything except 
Heaven and Earth must have had a cause, 
it is clear that they have always existed, 
and that cause produced all sorts of men 
and beings, and endowed them with their 
various qualities. But it must have been 
man who in the beginning produced all 
things on earth, and who may therefore be 
viewed as the lord and from whom rulers 
derived their dignities." 

The ordinary Chinese philosophers of 
ancient times felt called upon to advance 
some sort of theory as to the creation of the 
world. Having no idea of a Supreme God, 
by whom all things were created, they de- 

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vised a theory which satisfied them and 
those who listened to them, or afterwards 
read their writings. According to this the- 
ory there were two great and mysterious 
principles in nature, the male and the fe- 
male or as they called them "The Yang," 
which was strong or hard, and " The Yin," 
which was weak or soft. These produced 
heaven and earth in very much the same way 
as children are born to human parents, and 
afterwards all things were similarly pro- 

One of those philosophers explained this 
theory concisely thus: Reason produced 
one; one produced two; two produced 
three; three produced all things. But what 
was Reason? Some give it the name of 
Tae-keih; but this is not at all satisfactory 
for it means simply "Great Power." By 
this scheme of creation, then, heaven and 
earth were separated in a measure; yet all 
was chaos. Then appeared Pwanku or 
P'au Ku, who was the first inhabitant of 
this earth. One legendary explanation of 
this name is interesting and ingenious: 
Pwan means a "basin," referring to the 
shell of an egg; Ku means " solid or to se- 
cure," intending to show how the first man 
Pwanku was hatched from the chaos by the 
dual powers, and then settled and exhibited 
the arrangement of the causes which pro- 
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duced him. Pwanku set himself to the task 
of giving form to the heavens and the earth. 
With a mighty chisel and mallet he split 
off and fashioned the great masses of 
granite that surrounded him. Through 
some of the openings thus made, the sun, 
moon, and stars appeared. Always asso- 
ciated with him in pictorial art are his com- 
panions, the dragon, the phoenix, and the 
tortoise; the unicorn is sometimes added, 
but no explanation of their creation or rea- 
son for their being is given. Pwanku lab- 
ored for eighteen thqusand years, and little 
by little his work developed while he him- 
self increased in stature. He grew six feet 
each day until his work was finished, when 
he died. 

" His head became mountains, his breath 
wind and clouds, and his voice thunder; his 
limbs were changed into the four poles, his 
veins into rivers, the sinews into the undula- 
tions of the earth^s surface, and his flesh 
into flelds; his beard, like Berenice's hair, 
was turned into stars, his skin and hair into 
herbs and trees, and his teeth, bones, and 
marrow into metals, rocks, and precious 
stones; his dropping sweat increased to rain, 
and lastly {nasoitur Hditmlus mUa) the in- 
sects which stuck to his body were trans- 
formed into people ! '' * 

♦ The Middle Kingdom, S. Wells Williams. 

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It is a marvelons pity that Pwanku's 
tortoise did not survive at least until men 
had developed- the art of writing, for on the 
creature's thick upper shell was written — 
so it is declared — the history of the world 
up to that time; but the priceless record 
was lost forever! 

It will be noticed that lightning is not 
mentioned in this account. That is because 
the fire from heaven and the thunder were 
not associated as related phenomena, until 
long after the Chinese had made great ad- 
vance in culture. The anger of the celestial 
beings was displayed by that fire from 
heaven, but that it caused the thunder did 
not at first occur to those simple people. 

When Pwanku's task was finished there 
came three mythological personages, who 
are called, respectively, the Celestial, the 
Terrestrial, and the Human Sovereigns* 
They were of gigantic form and are asso- 
ciated in a curious trinity of persons, heav- 
enly, earthly, human. Each one lived for 
eighteen thousand years. In this wonder- 
ful cosmogony there appeared, after the 
three sovereigns had passed away, two other 
monarchs who were almost as famous, and 
apparently they were much more beneficent 
to ordinary mortals, that is, later human 

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The first of this trinity was Yu-chau, 
which means ^^ having a nest" because he 
taught the numerous progeny of his ances- 
tors to build nests. Whether this means lit- 
erally that the remote ancestors of the Chi- 
nese were tree-dwellers^ like the Indians on 
the Orinoco Eiver of South America, and 
elsewhere in the world, or is used figura- 
tively, it is impossible to say; but probably 
it is simply a fanciful way of saying that the 
people from thenceforth dwelt in something 
like habitations, having previously lived in 
caves, when they did not sleep in the open. 

The second of those monarchs, Sui-jin, or 
" fire-man " discovered that by rubbing two 
pieces of dried wood together he produced 
fire. This blessed Promethean gift was of 
inestimable benefit to mankind, who had 
until then been compelled to eat all food 
raw. Flesh and certain vegetables ^ere 
now properly cooked and the people were 
greatly delighted at this wonderful improve- 

The people had not yet any mode of writ- 
ing or keeping accounts. Sui-jin therefore 
took cords' of different colors or materials 
in which he tied knots that served him as 
memoranda for keeping some of his records. 
We recognize in this the qmpus of South 
America. By developing this ingenious 

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process, people eventually became expert in 
imparting information to distant friends. 
Sni-jin also erected a public assembly ball 
wherein the people were given instruction 
in various matters, and by thus associating 
together they advanced in culture. The 
Chinese records of these myths are so 
phrased as to lead us to suppose the people 
were all in one great community ; this, how- 
ever, is a detail which demands neither con- 
firmation nor refutation. There are so 
many other myths and legends which de- 
serve at least a little attention, that we must 
pass on from those relating to Creation. 

Fuh-hi, who was mentioxied at the open- 
ing of this chapter, is given rank and dig- 
nity of being called " the first of the Five 
Emperors," who appeared as the mist 
partially blew away when the purely my- 
thological era had ended. That Fuh-hi is 
also given the honor of having been the 
founder of the Chinese Empire. He reigned 
in Shensi from 2,852 to 2,652 B.C., and 
his capital was Hwa-sen. He must have 
been something of a philosopher as well as 
a monarch. In his time and for many cen- 
turies afterwards, the fact of being Emperor 
or ruler, whether it was of a petty princi- 
pality or the empire which gradually de- 
veloped, meant that the sovereign was also 
a soldier, for it was expected that he should 

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lead his people in war or he could not govern 
them properly in peace. 

Had this principle been lived up to con- 
stantly by the later Chinese, they might 
have been able to make a better fight than 
they did against the Tartars, — Mongols and 
Manchus. Puh-hi was interested in study- 
ing the course of Nature, the seeming regu- 
larity of the recurring seasons inspired him 
with a desire to trace the causes of her great 
revolution. He therefore invented a system 
of lines, one long and two short, which in 
combination gave eight trigrams, or Kway 
each one of which represents a natural ob- 
ject, Heaven, the Sky, Water collected in 
marsh or lake, Fire, Thunder, Wind, Water 
in clouds, rain, springs, streams, and also 
the Moon, Hills or Mountains, and the 

They also denote attributes arbitrarily 
arranged according to the natural object: 
Strength, Power; Pleasure, Satisfaction; 
Brightness, Elegance; Moving Power, Flex- 
ibility; Peril, Difficulty; Resting; Oaprici- 
ousness. Submission. They stand, too, for 
the eight cardinal points of the compass ac- 
cording to Chinese ideas: south, southeast, 
east, northeast, southwest, west, northwest, 
and north. They likewise furnish the 
state and position, at any time or place, 
of the two-fold division of the one primor- 

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dial ki, or **Air," Thus they become the 
source whence the system of Fung*shtd is 

Fung-shni literally means "Wind and 
Water/^ and is the foundation of a wonder- 
ful geomancy, which contained most of the 
Chinese science and explained, in an un- 
satisfactory way, their superstition. Al- 
though based upon Fuh-hi's Jcwa, yet this 
Fung-shui was not systematized until the 
twelfth century of our era; after that it 
extended its influence and continuity until 
very recent times. It would be impossible 
to discuss Fung-shui thoroughly, unless one 
entire volume were devoted to the subject. 
Its most important influence, so far as for- 
eigners were concerned, was that it de- 
termined the choice of a burial place, being 
supposed to be connected with the past, pres- 
ent, and future. 

A grave having been located by the Fung- 
shm Siensang, " Wind and Water Doctor," 
its removal or any interference with it 
would entail disaster; hence it was Pung- 
shui that so often stood as an obstruction 
to the building of railways, opening of 
mines, and many other industrial improve- 
ments. With the change that has taken 
place in education and habit of thought, 
the influence of Fung-shui has been pretty 
nearly relegated to oblivion; although in 

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remote districts it is still tronblesome some- 
times; and the determination of a burial 
place is even now determined by the Fung- 
shui Sienaang, 

Myth attributes to Fuh-hi many other 
beneficial things, and after living some two 
hundred years, he died greatly regretted. 

It is not the purpose here to distinguish 
between fact and fiction because of the 
former there is practically none. Whether 
it was Fuh-hi, or Hwang-ti, who came after 
him, or Tsang-kieh, who is alleged to have 
fiourished about 2700 B.C., that invented 
writing, does not much matter. The art 
was certainly of great antiquity, and the 
myth attached to it says that it came from 
the last mentioned personage noticing the 
markings on the shell of a tortoise. By 
similar lines and then imitating common 
objects in nature, symbols to represent ideas 
were devised. It will be noted that in this 
myth there seems to be a survival of that 
connected with Pwan-ku^s attendant tor- 

Legend attributes to Hwang-ti the first 
use of brick in architecture, building of 
villages and cities, and the establishing of 
the people in fixed centers, about which they 
were commanded and taught to cultivate 
the soil; in his time the greatest order is 
said to have prevailed, after he had con- 

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quered the forces of his predecessor Shin- 
nung. Chinese historians do not lay macfai 
stress upon this apparent rebellion if such 
it was. Hwang-ti is said to have built an 
observatory and to have corrected the cal- 
endar; to have invented arms, carts, boats, 
water-clocks, chariots, and an ingenious 
musical instrument He also introduced 
coined money and fixed the standards of 
weights and measures. 

His Empress was likewise a remarkable 
personage, for legend attributes to her the 
rearing of silk worms, reeling and spinning 
their floss, and weaving it into material 
which was used for elegant robes. Another 
myth tells us that Hwang-ti's son and suc- 
cessor, Shan-haou, saw a phoenix and ad- 
mired it so much that he commanded all 
ofllcials to have the efllgy of that bird em- 
broidered on their robes of state. This cus- 
tom survived until the year 1912. 

Myths innunjerable gather round the 
heavenly bodies. The sun, moon, and plan- 
ets were believed to exert great influence 
upon this earth, its inhabitants, and all its 
growth ; therefore change in the color or gen- 
eral appearance of any one was pregnant 
with meaning. Any marked change in the 
appearance of the Sun presaged misfortune 
to the State or its head; such as revolts, 

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PAGODA near Canton 

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floods^ famines^ or the death of the Emperor. 
If the Moon looked unusually red or seemed 
to be too pale, there were bad times ahead 
for ordinary men. 

Symbolism was inevitably connected with 
these ideas, and hence we find that a raven 
drawn within a circle stood for the Sun; 
while a rabbit standing on its hind legs and 
grasping in its forepaws a long pestle with 
which it pounded rice in a mortar to clean 
it of the hull and coarse skin, stood for the 
Moon. But there was another symbol for 
Luna and that was a three-legged toad. 
This myth came from a legend of a beauty 
of mythical times whose name was Chang- 
ngo. It is said that she, like so many other 
beautiful women, was loath to lose her 
beauty and to pass away in death. There- 
fore she procured from a magician some 
of " the liquor of immortality " which she 
drank, and was immediately carried up to 
the moon, where she was transformed into 
a toad. The Chinese declare that the out- 
line of the toad may be traced on the face 
of the Moon when she is at her full. This 
toad — really the beauty for whom it stood 
— is specially worshiped at the time of the 
full moon in mid-autumn and at that time 
cakes of a particular kind are sold. This 
myth with many others has been trans- 

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ferred to Japan where they flourish quite 
as vigorously as ever they did in the land 
of their origin. 

Every one of the constellations has its 
own peculiar ^mbolism^ and there is an em- 
peror to rule over all these conspicuous 
groups of stars. This celestial government 
is as completely organized as any upon 
earthy with empresses, an heir apparent, (al- 
though how he succeeds, since immortality 
is one of the attributes of those heavenly 
creatures, is not clear), subordinate princes 
and princesses, a court circle, tribunals, etc. 
There is one pretty, yet rather sad, myth 
connected with the Milky Way, that is ex- 
ceedingly popular in both China and Japan. 
It is called " The Herdsman and the Weaver 

The girl was the daughter of the Sun-god, 
and she was so remarkably diligent with 
her loom that her father grew worried about 
her. He concluded that matrimony would 
divert her mind from her incessant task, 
and so he arranged a marriage with a neigh- 
bor who herded cattle on the bank of " The 
Silvery Stream of Heaven.*' The story is 
found in many books, yet the Chinese and 
the Japanese versions vary but little. Ac- 
cording to one version the Weaving Girl was 
so constantly kept employed in making gar- 
ments for the offspring of the Emperor of 

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Heaven — in other words, God — that she 
had no leisure to attend to the adornment 
of her person. At last, however, God, tak- 
ing compassion on her loneliness, gave her 
in marriage to the Herdsman who dwelt on 
the opposite side of the river. Then the 
woman b^;an to grow remiss in her woriL. 
The angry Emperor of Heaven then com- 
pelled her to re^Toss the river, and at the 
same time he forbade her husband to visit 
her oftener than once a year. The Herds- 
man is the bright star in the constellation 
Aqnila. The Weaving Girl is the similar 
star in V^a. They dwell on the opposite 
sides of the '' Celestial River," or the Milky 
Way, and they can never meet except on the 
seventh night of the seventh moon, a night 
which is held sacred to them. 

Another version represents the pair as 
mortals, who were wedded at the early ages 
of fifteen and twelve, and who died at the 
ages of a hundred and three and ninety- 
nine respectively. After death, their spirits 
flew up to the sky, where the supreme Deity 
bathed daily in the Celestial River. No 
mortals might pollute it by their touch, ex- 
cept on the seventh day of the seventh moon, 
when the Deity, instead of bathing, went to 
listen to the chanting of the Buddhist Scrip- 
tures. The seventh moon, of course, re- 
ferred to the old Lunar Calendar. That is 

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to esLjj the time when the pair are rennited 
comes toward the end of sommer and it 
will be noticed that the stars which repre- 
sent them are fairly close together and 
tonching, as one may say, the banks of the 
Heayenly stream^ 

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IT will have been inferred from what was 
already written in the preceding chap- 
ters, that the literature of the Empire, and 
perhaps of a period before that Empire was 
organized, constitutes a considerable legacy 
to which the new Republic has fallen heir. 
Yet if the educational, technical, industrial, 
political, and many other reforms are car- 
ried out, the value of that legacy will be 
greatly impaired if we do not wish to say 
destroyed altogether. 

Indeed there are not wanting some 
Chinese of the "advanced thinker" type 
who say frankly that when new China has 
actually ^ gained the position she deserves 
and is once firmly planted on her own feet, 
there will be little cause for regret were the 
act of Chi Hwang-ti ("The First Em- 
peror") repeated so far as most of the so- 
called "Classics" are concerned. To un- 
derstand this allusion, a little bit of inter- 
esting history must be introduced here. 
During the time of the Chou Dynasty (1122 
to 255 B. C.) China was in fact a group of 


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46 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

feudal states very loosely joined together, 
and the " Emperor '^ was in reality only the 
head of that state which, for the time be- 
ing, was the most powerful in martial 

In the western section of the relatively 
small area then immediately connected with 
the Chinese people was a clan, the Tsin, who 
had long been powerful. They lived in 
what is now the great province of Shensi, 
but their authority extended northward into 
Kansuh, southward in Sz-chuan, perhaps be- 
yond the Yang-tze Eiver, and westward al- 
most indefinitely. They occupied about 
one-fifth of the whole country that could 
then have been looked upon as the realm of 
China, and the number of the clansmen 
probably amounted to one-tenth of the 
whole population of China. 

One of these Tsin chiefs had the audacity 
to make arrogant demands upon the impe- 
rial chief of the feudal congerie, and backed 
up his demands by entering what may be 
called the Imperial Domain, defeating the 
troops of him whom he should have acknowl- 
edged as his master. This master was 
Tung-Chau Kiun, 314 to 255 B. C, the last 
of the Chan Dynasty. If we say that a 
"rebellion'' is an unsuccessful revolt 
against constituted national authority, 
while revolution is the successful revolt, we 

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must not speak of the act of that andacioiis 
subject as rebellion. 

But by whatever name we call his act, 
it is certain that Chausiang Wang, 255 to 
250 B.C., was saccessfol, and made him- 
self master of the whole empire, as it was 
then constituted. He did not actually as- 
sume the title of Emperor, although his 
name api^ears in the list of Chinese sov- 
ereigns; but his son Chwangsiang Wang, 
249 to 246 B. C, did so. AU of the blood 
royal of the Chau Dynasty who could be 
found, whether adult or child, male or fe- 
male, were butchered by Chwangsiang's 
troops most ruthlessly; and the process of 
subduing all the rest of the states in the 
congerie was carried on effectively, until 
he was supreme. 

He then took for himself the title of Chi 
Hwangti, and established a dynasty which 
he called the Tsin. It is likewise known as 
the Ch'in, and some writers declare that 
from this word came the name China. 
This is because the first people of the West 
who knew anything about the Chinese, 
spoke of them — we are told — as " people 
of the land of Ch'in/' It is not difficult 
to believe that this word would readily be- 
come " China." As the Italians say, se non 
d vero, d hen trovato, or " if it is not true it 
is cleverly invented." 

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This monarch, who has been called the 
Napoleon of China (although to the minds 
of many that is a distinction which cuts 
two ways!) was really a remarkable man in 
many ways, and that the people generally 
looked upon him as such is evident from the 
fact that later generations took pride in 
calling themselves "Men of Tsin." But 
there were, and there are, good Chinese who 
execrate his name because he presumed to 
arrogate to himself an equality with the 
three great Emperors of the Mythical 
Period, Puh-hi, Shin-nung, and Hwang-ti, 
to whom are assigned the years from 2852 
to 2597 B. C. 

Chi Hwangti was certainly a vain man. 
His vanity, stimulated by the advice of his 
Prime Minister, Li-szu, made him wish to 
destroy all records of every kind that had 
been written prior to his own time. By do- 
ing this he hoped to compel posterity to 
regard himself as the very first Emperor of 
the Chinese people. The Prime Minister 
had reported to his master that the influence 
of the scholars was pernicious and their 
writings merely contributed to cause con- 
fusion. Hwang-ti's special animosity was 
directed against the writings of Confucius 
and Mencius, explanatory of the Shu-king, 
which will be described presently, because 
that work dealt with the feudal states of 

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China, whose rememhrance the new " First 
Emperor/' wished to blot out absolutely. 

But the real reason for the unpopularity 
of the literati was that they constituted the 
conserratiye element of the populace and 
were always ready to oppose all efforts at re- 
form which the Emperor might wish to in* 
stitute. In this aspect of the literary class, 
history repeated itself very emphatically in 
the twentieth century, for it was the lit- 
erary men and the Manchus who tried to 
thwart the efforts of the late Emperor 
Kwang Hsfl and those of his aunt, the great 
Empress Dowager, when they were trying 
to make China a factor in the world's af- 
fairs. It will now be understood what is 
meant by saying that some of the most radi- 
cal of the Chinese progressives think it 
would do little or no harm to repeat Hwang- 
ti's destruction of the "Classical Litera- 

My introduction to Chinese literature was 
through the reading by my teacher of San 
huo chih yen i, and his explanation thereof- 
This is an historical novel based upon the 
wars of the Three Kingdoms. When the 
Han Dynasty was overthrown, A. D. 190, 
there was the greatest confusion throughout 
the whole of China, and because of the 
many important characters who appeared 
upon the stage of the national play-house, 

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it was a period of great interest and the ac- 
count of the wars between the three rival, 
petty kingdoms; first Wei, in the central 
and northern provinces with their capital 
city Lo-Yang in Honan province; second 
Wu, which included some of the provinces 
south of the Yang-tze River, its capital 
Nangking; and third Shu, which included 
most of the western part of the country, par- 
ticularly the great Sz-chuan province, with 
its capital city Cheng-tu. 

I have always said that the true Chinese 
people are not warlike or naturally blood- 
thirsty, and I am as firmly convinced as 
ever of those facts. Yet it is astonishing 
what a hold this San kuo chih yen i has upon 
them. It tells of the distractions of that 
period, of the clash of armies in fierce bat- 
tle; of the cunning plans laid by skilful 
generals to deceive their rivals, and to gain 
victory when it was not always true that the 
Lord is on the side of the largest legions. 

As an illustration of these cunning 
tricks, there is a story told that one admiral, 
whose supply of arrows was nearly ex- 
hausted, had a number of dummy sailors 
made by stuffing clothes with hay. Then 
he bore down towards the enemy and gave all 
indications of attack. The opposing ad- 
miral at once ordered his men to send a 
shower of arrows against the approaching 

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enemy, being deceived by the appearance 
of the dummies into supposing that he was 
slaughtering the soldiers of his enemy. 
When the attacking, wily admiral thought 
that he had sufficiently replenished his sup- 
ply of arrows, he drew oflf and then made 
preparation for a serious attack, which was 
entirely successful. 

This same book bristles with accounts of 
the valorous deeds of individuals that sim- 
ply pass beyond our ability to comprehend. 
There are so many of them that they become 
almost commonplace. I have already given 
one of these tales and there are plenty more 
for those who care to read. It is entirely 
true as Dr. Herbert A. Giles says: "If a 
vote were taken among the people of China, 
as to the greatest among their countless 
novels, the Story of the Three Kingdoms 
would indubitably come out first." 

I had worked hard at the Chinese lan- 
guage for eight or nine months, when I 
suddenly found myself thinking and even 
dreaming in the Swatow vernacular. Then 
my teacher said I was ready to hear the Sam 
hohu, as he called the title of the novel. 
He read it to me, but he put it into the 
simple local dialect which I was able to 
understand, and I really did find myself en- 
joying the book. 

Many centuries before the beginning of 

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our era, the citizens of the ancient fendal 
states of China enjoyed a considerable meas- 
ure of physical civilization. When they 
were not at war amongst themselves, there 
was a reasonable security for life and prop- 
erty. The people lived in fairly good 
houses, they were dressed in silk or robes 
made from homespun cotton or other fibers ; 
they carried umbrellas both against the sun 
and the rain; they sat on chairs and at 
tables around which they gathered for meals 
or other purposes; they rode in carts or 
chariots; they traveled extensively in boats 
along the rivers and connecting canals; 
they ate their food oflf plates and dishes of 
pottery which were perhaps coarse, yet they 
were certainly superior to the wooden 
trenchers that were common in Europe un- 
til a surprisingly short time ago. 

"They measured time by the sundial, and 
in the Golden Age they had two faiuous 
calendar trees, representations of which 
have come down to us in sculpture, dating 
from about A. D. 150. One of these trees 
put forth a leaf every day for fifteen days, 
after which a leaf fell oflf daily for fifteen 
more days. The other put forth a leaf once 
a month for half a year, after which a leaf 
fell oflf monthly for a similar period. With 
these trees growing in the court yard, it 
was possible to say at a glance what was the 

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day of the month, and what was the month 
of the year. But civilization proved un- 
favorable to their growth, and the species 
became extinct." • 

In the sixth century before Christ the 
Chinese had a written language, fully com- 
petent to express the most varied forms of 
human thought. It was almost identical 
with the present ideographs, if we make 
reasonable allowance for certain modifica- 
tions of forms which have been brought 
about by the use of paper and the paint- 
brush pen that have been used for so long, 
instead of the thin bamboo tablets and the 
sharp stylus of old times. 

Confucius was born, it is generally 
agreed, in the year 551 B. 0. He may be 
regarded as the founder of Chinese litera- 
ture. (Whether there had been before him 
anything that we may properly call general 
literature, it is impossible to say. But ap- 
parently the main use to which writing had 
been put was to keep the records of the im- 
perial court and to note the doings of the 

Confucius gathered together whatever 
of literary fragments he could find, and 
these he compiled and edited in the Shu 
Ching, « The Book of History." (Williams 
calls this Shu King, "Book of Records.") 

* Giles, Herbert A., A History of Chinese Literature. 

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There were originally, it is said, one hun- 
dred of the documents comprising this 
work, and they covered a wide range of 
time from the twenty-fourth to the eighth 
century before Christ. The first two of 
these documents refer to Emperors Yao and 
Shun, who reigned from 2357 to 2205 B. C, 
during what Chinese antiquarians regard 
as the Golden Age of their country. Yao 
" united the various parts of his domain in 
the bonds of peace, so that concord reigned 
among the black-haired people/^ In this 
Book of History there are some poems that 
admit of very close rendering in English, 
for it is a curious fact that in directness of 
expression and in the arrangement accord- 
ing to the rules of syntax, the English sen- 
tence is very like the Chinese. 

We are likewise indebted to Confucius 
for the preservation of what is considered 
the next most ancient work in Chinese lit- 
erature. It is the Shih Ching or " Book of 
Odes." (Williams calls it Shi King.) It 
is a collection of rhymed ballads in various 
meters, usually four words to the line, and 
showing a curious balance between the 
main word of one line and that of the com- 
plementary line. The poems were com- 
I)osed at various times between the reign of 
Emperor Yu, distinguished by being called 

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'' The Great '' (2208 to 2197 B. C.) There 
are now three hundred and five of the bal- 
lads, and therefore the collection is called 
"The Three Hundred." It is said that 
Confucius made his selection from some- 
thing like three thousand pieces that he 
gathered together from all parts of the 
country during his wanderings. They are 
all very didactic, and each is considered to 
hold a hidden meaning or to point some 
moral. This is an admirable illustration: 

Don't come in, sir, please! 

Don't break my willow-trees! 

Not that that would very much gnrieve me; 

But alack-a-day! what would my parents say? 

And love you as I may, 

I cannot bear to think what that would be. 

In this, commentators discover a hidden 
historical meaning; that a feudal chief 
whose brother had been attempting his over- 
throw, being loath to punish that brother, 
finds excuse for not doing so. 

It is declared that Confucius himself at- 
tached so much importance to these ballads, 
that when his own son answered negatively 
to the question "Have you learned the 
Odes? " the sage declared, with much heat, 
that until he had done so, the young man 
would not be fit to associate with intelligent 

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men. These odes possess great value for 
the student of ethnology, and particularly 
give interesting information as to manners 
and customs of the Chinese people before 
the time of the great Confucius. 

Perhaps the oldest book of all, and the 
most important one of the pre-Confucian 
works, is the / Ghing or "The Book of 
Changes " (the Yih King of Williams). It 
is credited to Wen Wang, who was virtually 
the founder of the Chou Dynasty. His son, 
Wu Wang, became the first sovereign of the 
dynasty which held the throne from 1122 
to 255 B. C. The importance of this book, 
in the eyes of the Chinese students of for- 
mer times, was the fanciful system of phi- 
losophy deduced from the eight trigrams, 
which have been already mentioned, in con- 
nection with Fuh-hi For an illustration 
of the reading of these trigrams and the ex- 
panded diagrams based upon them the 
reader is referred to Dr. Legge's works, op 
Giles' Chinese Literature. 

The Li Chi, "The Book of Bites'' (Wil- 
liams' Li Ki) , and the older work Chou Li, 
" The Rules of the Chou Dynasty " are al- 
ways coupled together, forming one of the 
Six Classics, recognized in ancient times. 
Their names indicate sufficiently what they 
are. The last of the great Five Classics, as 

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the ancient literature came to be consti- 
tuted, is the Ch'un CWiu, or " The Spring 
and Autumn Annals" (Williams' Ghtvn 
Tsiu). It is merely a chronological record 
of the chief events in the State of Lu, where 
Gonfucius was born. It covers the years 
from 722 to 484 B, C, and is generally re- 
garded as the only one of the Classics which 
may properly be attributed to Confucius 

The great mass of Chinese literature con- 
sists of commentaries upon the Classics, 
explanations of obscure passages, and 
varying readings. I do not mean to say 
that during the 2500 years, during which 
the Chinese have possessed the art of writ- 
ing, there has been nothing of a general 
nature added to their literature. On the 
contrary the collection is something enor- 
mous; and there is not space sufficient even 
to notice it briefly. Some of it will live; 
but much of it will disappear as the Chinese 
mind turns toward the practical affairs of 
life as they are to be determined hereafter. 

There are many volumes of most inter- 
esting Chinese folk-lore tales that have been 
translated into English by competent 
scholars. I have space for just one and 
that I have selected almost as much for its 
brevity as anything else. Yet the theme, 

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58 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

conjugal fidelity, is one that is very dear 
to the Chinese. 

The Faithful Gandbb 

A sportsman of Tientsin, having snared 
a wild goose, was followed to his home by 
the gander, which flew round and round 
him in great distress, and went away only 
at nightfall. The next day, when the 
sportsman went out, there was the bird 
again ; and at length it alighted quite close 
to his feet. He was on the point of seizing 
it, when suddenly it stretched out its neck 
and disgorged a piece of pure gold; where- 
ui)on the sportsman, understanding what 
the bird meant, cried out : " I see ! this is to 
ransom your mate, eh?'' Accordingly, he 
at once released the goose, and the two 
birds flew away with many expressions of 
their mutual joy, leaving to the sportsman 
nearly three ounces of pure gold. Can, 
then, mere birds have such feelings as these? 
Of all sorrows there is no sorrow like 
separation from those we love; and it seems 
that the same principle holds good even of 
dumb animals. 

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WHILE I was making my first lengthy 
stay in China, the Rev. Justus Doo- 
little was putting through the press his 
interesting book, " Social Life of the Chi- 
nese." It was a valuable work in many 
ways and this fact is made clear by the 
reference to it made in the later editions 
of Dr. Williams' more famous " The Middle 
Kingdom." Doolittle wrote truthfully at 
the time that a great obstacle to the speedy 
conversion of the Chinese, was their syste- 
matized, superstitious, and idolatrous edu- 
cation. The child and the youth were all 
then taught to believe in the constant 
presence and powerful influence of number- 
less gods and goddesses for good or evil. 
He wrote: "For instance: from the time 
of birth till sixteen years of age, boy and 
girl are taught to believe that they are 
under the special protection of a female de- 
ity fancifully called * Mother.' During this 
period various superstitious and idola- 
trous acts are very frequently performed 
before her image or representative, either 
as thanksgivings for favors believed to have 


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been received from her by them, or as meri- 
torious acts in order to propitiate her kind 
offices to preserve them in health or to cure 
from sickness. When sixteen years old, a 
singular ceremony is performed, whereby it 
is indicated that they then pass out of the 
special protection of * Mother,' and come 
under the care and control of gods and god- 
desses in general/' This writer's observa- 
tions were made mainly at Poochow, Only 
about two hundred miles down the coast, 
at Swatow, I was trying to learn the Chi- 
nese language from a middle-aged man who 
was in the lowest rank of the literati. He 
had passed the first examination for the 
Civil Service, which was held at the fu 
capital, Tiechiu (Chowchow) and had been 
told that his papers were of a very high 
grade of excellence. Naturally he expected 
that the next examination, held at the pro- 
vincial capital, Canton, would be equally 
successful; but to his amazement, he was 
" plucked," and this happened several times. 
" Why?" he asked; and most of his native 
friends were prompt with their answer: 
"Because you are a Christian!" It was 
true. Liu Hsiu Tsai had given up the wor- 
ship of idols and the gods and goddesses of 
China and had embraced Christianity. In 
the early sixties of last century, that was 

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fatal for any Chinese who hoped to become 
a mandarin. 

What a contrast there is between condi- 
tions of fifty years ago, and the fact that 
recently the government of the Chinese Re- 
public officially asked Christian people all 
the world over to pray that the delibera- 
tions of the Chinese legislators might be 
guided by divine wisdom: the wisdom of 
the Christian's one Supreme God. The con- 
trast has just been emphasized by the fact 
that the Chinese Government has notified 
entire freedom for religious belief. 

Possibly that appeal to the world-wide 
Christians was, as cynics declared, a clever 
piece of diplomacy. The very fact that 
such a thing could have happened from any 
motive whatever, shows that the line which 
now divides the Chinese Republic fropi the 
past history of the great Chinese Empire, 
is a broad one indeed. The simile I have 
just used is not apt. That which divides 
the Republic from the Empire is not a line, 
it is a chasm; already so wide that it can 
never be bridged, and will be ever widening. 
In nothing is the gap so tremendous as be- 
tween the old methods of education and the 
ways the young are now taught and will 
be hereafter. 

In the religious communities of former 

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62 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

times, Buddhist and Taoist, there were al- 
ways provisions made for teaching boys 
who contemplated the priesthood, how to 
read and write a little, and sometimes this 
was done even when the lads did not intend 
to become priests. But there was -precious 
little education about that teaching. If I 
were to teach my boy the letters of the 
Greek alphabet so that he could read every 
page of the Hellenic authors, I should have 
very little right to say he understood what 
he read, if I stopped there. So with the 
Buddhist autras and the Taoist texts. 
Many priests could read the former, even 
when they were written in Sanskrit, many 
more could read both, if in Chinese; but not 
one in a hundred knew the meaning of that 
which he was reading. 

There was no such thing as a public 
school in Old China, now and then some 
specially good prefect or local official would 
hire a young literary man, who had not re- 
ceived a government appointment, to teach a 
class of boys at the official residence, yam^iv; 
but admission was always a matter of rank 
and favoritism, and the instruction was 
never anything practical: it was simply to 
cram the boys' heads with the Five Classics 
and the commentaries thereon by Confucius, 
Mencius, and a thousand others whose one 
delight it was to split hairs! 

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Our quarrel with the old time and for- 
mer education of China is one of character, 
rather than of scope. Many people tell us 
that girls and women were absolutely ne- 
glected in this matter, but I think this is 
somewhat of a mistake. There was noth- 
ing so general in the education of girls as 
there was amongst the boys whose fathers 
were able to afford to send them to school. 
For every village had its private school 

In one of my earliest walks — it was the 
first Sunday after I settled down at Swatow 
and there was no church service that I 
could attend — I passed near a small vil- 
lage. I heard a terrific noise of boys' 
voices, of that I was sure; yet they did not 
seem to be quarreling. Before I could put 
my question into words, my companion, who 
spoke Chinese well, answered the question 
that was clearly in my face and said: 
^* That is a school ! ^' ** Ah, it is recess time, 
I suppose, and the lads are playing.'^ 
"Not at all," was the laughing response, 
" they are studying their lessons diligently.'^ 

Afterwards I had a chance to visit a na- 
tive school for boys, and I saw the lads 
sitting on the floor mats, or on rough forms. 
Each one was shouting out his lesson at the 
top of his voice, to convince the teacher that 
he was honestly working hard. In front of 
the master's desk, back towards the teacher. 

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stood one boy who was reciting his lesson. 
The lessons were always the same; a vol- 
mne or two, op perhaps a page from the 
idolized Classics — long or short according 
to the attainments of the boy and his indi- 
vidnal capacity — and they were merely 
learned by rote. There was no explanation 
of the meaning of the hundreds of charac- 
ters the boy memorized. Years afterwards 
that would come. The boy was not even 
learning to read, because it was possible 
that the context might cause the sound or 
intonation of a particular ideograph to 
vary a little and thus completely alter the 
meaning of the sentence. 

Yet the rudimentary education was to 
continue for ten years or more; then would 
come from five to ten years of lectures on 
the same Classics, with explanation of the 
texts themselves, and commentaries in Chi- 
nese. By the time the young man was from 
twenty to twenty-five years of age, although 
there was no age limit, he would be ready to 
take his first competitive examination; and 
if successful, to mount the first rung of the 
ladder that might lead to the highest honors 
in the land. 

It was a very beautiful and thoroughly 
democratic system in principle; but every 
one knew that when the time came for the 
"Budding Genius" to enter the examina* 

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tion hall from whence this " genius " might 
emerge as one "Eeady for Office/^ his 
chances would be much improved if some- 
body's palm were comfortably greased. 
Nominally the papers were supposed to be 
absolutely anonymous. Yet there were 
hundreds of cases, where the examiners' 
particular friends passed brilliantly — even 
when they were known to be stupid — while 
hard-working and bright students were 
thrown out. 

I know it is said that girls were terribly 
neglected in educational matters in China 
until Si very few years ago ; yet the records 
of the country show that a great many 
women and from all walks of life, were fam- 
ous for their poems, epigrams, and other 
forms of composition. The education which 
was given to the women of China in former 
times, was nothing comparable with what 
they are able to get nowadays, yet it fitted 
them to be of some assistance to their hus- 
bands; and it is pleasing to note in Chinese 
literature that a just appreciation of this 
assistance is often given. 

In 1834 the Rev. Charles GutzlaflP, when 
commenting upon the narrow scope of 
Chinese education, said that there was prac- 
tically no such thing as an original writer, 
and that there had not been any of these 
for centuries. Some of the essays which 

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the saccessjFnl candidates at the literary ex- 
aminations had sent in, had been printed 
and those were the nearest approach to 
what may be called new publications. Yet 
it would have been a mistake to call them 
** new ** in material or in treatment, for they 
contained nothing but what millions of 
similar scholars had written in precisely 
the same circumstances for many centuries. 

Still, it was for ability to write these 
classical essays that officials were appointed 
to command armies and ships of war, with- 
out having received any more professional 
education than training in the use of the 
bow and perhaps how to ride a horse. 

What a change has come over China with- 
in little more than ten years. The premoni- 
tory symptoms of that change were to be 
noticed a few years before the close of the 
nineteenth century. Indeed, it may truth- 
fully be said that the most important lesson 
which the war between China and Japan in 
1894 and 1895 taught the former, was that 
a radical change must be made in every way, 
if China was not to be destroyed completely, 
or at any rate put into a position of subor- 
dination to her former pupil and imitator, 
Japan. The lesson was taken to heart by 
some — only a few at first — but that les- 
son was confirmed and its teachings were 

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firmly driven home by the resnlt of the 
Busso-Japanese war. 

Whether Japan was absolutely victorious 
in that enterprise or not, does not matter; 
her temerity in facing such a foe, her 
prowess in the field, and the seeming suc- 
cess, inspired the Chinese officials and the 
people of the eastern provinces most tre- 
mendously. Then was the beginning of the 
new movement, which eventually culminated 
in the birth of the Eepublic of China. 

In two years time, there has been accom- 
plished in China that which the broadest- 
minded native of that country fifty years 
ago would have declared impossible. The 
old time examinations were done away with 
forever, and instead of meaningless exposi- 
tions of what the sages in dim antiquity 
had said, and what later scholars had done 
to expound the sages' teachings; the candi- 
dates were called upon to write theses on 
subjects which might easily have been taken 
from the examination papers prepared by 
a professor in one of our own institutions 
of learning. 

Education is no longer a matter of hap- 
hazard that was left to the incompetent ped- 
agogue in village or town; and at the best 
that which was supplied by some kind- 
hearted official. The government has 

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taken charge of general education, and the 
Minister of Public Instruction is a man 
who conceives his duty to be to give the 
Chinese people, irrespective of sex or posi- 
tion, as nearly the same advantages as the 
West offers, due consideration being had 
to all the circumstances. 

From kindergartens to post-graduate 
courses at the Peking University, the 
scheme of education is as comprehensive aB 
possible. It is the desire of the foremost 
men in the Republic, to have at least one 
university in each of the eighteen provinces 
of China proper. In the outlying possess- 
ions, the highest grades of educational in- 
stitutions are to be provided as circum- 
stances permit and the demand therefor 
seems urgent At the other end of the scale 
there is to be common school education 
provided for children and youths every- 

There shall never again be any reason 
to say that the girls of China are at a dis- 
advantage when contrasted with their 
brothers. Technical education is to be 
given as conspicuous a place as means per- 
mit. In this phase of education a great 
deal remains to be done; but seemingly 
there is no need for telling such men as Dr. 
Sun Yafc-sen and tens of thousands who are 
like him in kind if they do differ more op 

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less in degree^ that it is in this technical 
education rather than in the purely literary 
field the fateful future of China lies. 

Many years ago, the younger attaches of 
the Chinese Legation at Washington were 
very plain-spoken in saying that their own 
people must have the control in building, 
equipping, maintaining, and operating the 
railways of China. Circumstances have 
made it impossible for them to attain their 
desire fully; and probably it is well — so 
long as the money for railways and so many 
other enterprises must come from abroad 
— that those who supply the pecuniary 
means should have the controlling voice in 
its expenditure. Yet in 1885 I knew some 
young Chinese engineers who were as com- 
petent to survey and build a railway as is 
any graduate of the best technical school in 
the United States, 

Their weak point still is their inability 
to control properly the operating expenses; 
social lines are so curiously drawn in China 
that even under the new rule, it is exceed- 
ingly difficult to make a subordinate under- 
stand that he must obey the man who is 
above him, and who may possibly come of a 
family that the subordinate knows to have 
a much more diminutive ancestral tree than 
his own. 

This seemingly anomalous state of affairs 

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is jnst one of the proofs that there has al- 
ways been a strong strain of democracy in 
the Chinese race. They seemed to stand 
in abject terror of a mandarin. As his lord- 
ship passed through the streets of the town, 
his lictors used their whips and brushes to 
clear a way, and the populace fell back, or 
went down on their knees in the dust, as 
though a vicegerent of the eternal gods was 
appearing to them. But when the time 
came to obey the mandate of his lordship, 
and do something which infringed upon a 
community right, there was none of that 
seeming servility. The same spirit until it 
has been properly controlled is going to be 
an awkward obstacle in the pathway of 
material development. 

The very fact of the Protestant Christian 
missionaries finding in the outset of their 
enterprise, that the key which most prompt- 
ly and effectively opened the doors of the 
Chinese, was that which was held in the 
hand of the missionary physician, is going 
to continue to be a valuable asset. The 
Chinese people themselves declare that such 
physicians did more at first than the evan- 
gelists; and I do not believe that any con- 
scientious missionary will be angry if I say 
that their influence in a comparative degree 
has been abiding. 

It was the western physician who began 

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a work that is now being taken up by all 
classes in China. Medical schools^ hospi- 
talSy infirmaries, maternity and nursing 
homes, all forms of this glorions healing art, 
are being established as rapidly as possible, 
and the Chinese themselves are displaying 
a willingness to pnt away the abominable 
methods of their old-time "Doctors'' (the 
pen almost refoses to write the word) and 
pnt themselves into the hands of the modem 
practitioner, be the doctor a native or a 
foreigner, and — most wonderfnl of all — 
whether the doctor be a man or a woman ! 

Could the spirit of Confucius walk 
through eastern China to-day and see equal- 
ity in all educational matters as well as in 
the professions for women, girls, men, and 
boys: could it know that modem surgery 
is practised and even taught by the Chinese 
themselves, what would happen? Because 
it was but a short time ago that amputation 
and all kindred surgery were considered 
absolutely impious. 

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THE "Home" mnst have its basis in 
marriage, and to that important epi- 
sode in hnman life attention is to be given 
first. Marriage is a matter of such tre- 
mendous importance in China that the 
parties who are to be united in wedlock are 
permitted to have nothing whatever to say 
about choice, mating, or anything else until 
after the wedding is an accomplished fact; 
so far as the engagement and simple cere- 
mony are concerned. Of course, I am 
speaMng now rather of the China that was, 
than the China that is; yet I doubt very 
much if the radical changes which have 
come in so many institutions with startling 
rapidity during the last two years, have 
very much influence upon betrothal and 
marriage. It may be true in China, as it 
actually is in Japan, that young men and 
women who have been educated abroad or 
in the liberal mission schools of their own 
land, and who have all their lives been 
brought up in an atmosphere of a " western " 
community, are taking these matters into 
their own hands. 


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The main reason for marriage in China 
was, and I shonld not like to say it is 
not so now, to preserve the continuity of 
the family line. Bnt a daughter cannot do 
this for their own family, because to the Chi- 
nese mind the term ^^ ancestral line " meant 
simply and absolutely, the continuity of 
father and son without any consideration 
being given to mother and daughter. 

It was imperatively necessary that a man 
should have a son who will perform the 
pious rites before the ancestral tablets or 
at the family tombs. Hence, the primary 
reason for marriage and the creation of a 
home. The attitude which Christian mis- 
sionaries should take towards this subject 
of ancestral worship has been one of the 
most difficult problems with which they 
have been brought face to face. I fear it 
has not yet been satisfactorily settled; but 
there are cheering evidences that with the 
spread of Christianity, the matter may 
gradually lose its importance and be al- 
lowed to pass into " innocuous desuetude.'' 

Say what we like, it was a form of wor- 
ship and the prayers which a devout Chinese 
made before the ancestral tablets in his own 
home, or at the graves of his fathers, were 
supposed to be heard by the departed an- 
cestors^ spirits, who had power to grant or 
refuse. The assertion that the seeming 

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worship was in reality nothing more than 
a mark of respect entirely comparable with 
the act of a good American citizen in rais- 
ing his hat as he stands before the tomb of 
George Washington, or by the grave of his 
own father, was — to express it mildly — 

There was an old proverb in China, 
" Without a go-between, a betrothal cannot 
be eflfected/' So the parents of a young 
man who had reached marriageable age or 
of a daughter who was fitted to become a 
wife, employed a go-between, who either 
made a selection himself and reported his 
choice to the parents who employed him, or 
acted on instructions given by his patrons 
and sounded the parents of the girl or youth 
who had been selected as a suitable part- 

It was almost always the young man's 
parents who commenced such negotiations. 
The go-between was given a huge piece of 
red paper (that is to say the formal Chinese 
visiting card!) on which were written the 
ancestral name of the family and full in- 
formation as to the date of the young man's 
birth; further information might be im- 
parted through the go-between. 

If the girl's parents listened to the go- 
between, they then made inquiries about the 
family of the young man. These being 

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satisfactory, it was most important to con- 
sult a Fung-aui Sienaang, who, making use 
of the eight trigrams, decided whether or 
not the betrothal would be proper and aus- 
picious. Needless to say, the nature of 
this decision was easily influenced by thQ 
size of the fee given the " doctor." It has 
not been an unheard-of thing for a girl who 
had some other young man in the corner of 
her eye, to send the " doctor " a bigger fee 
than her parents had furnished, with an in- 
timation that it would be well to declare 
against the proposed engagement. 

After the go-between had presented the 
card and it had been favorably received, 
three days were given to investigation. 
There were innumerable bad omens which 
might cause instantaneous breaking off of 
these negotiations: for example, the acci- 
dental destruction of an earthenware bowl, 
the loss of something valuable, or myste- 
rious illness. 

There was no civil or religious ceremony 
to effect a marriage. The bride went to 
the groom^s home in a special kind of closed 
sedan chair, or in a gorgeous palanquin 
borne high on the shoulders of many coolies, 
and was formally received by him. It 
should be noted that every effort was made 
to have the wedding procession as conspic- 
uous as possible. There was a band of 

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music, often some firecrackers, and a noisy 
crowd; the size of the last mentioned being 
measured by the ability of the bride's father 
to distribute largesse! They sat for a few 
minutes on the edge of the bridal bed in the 
presence of the groom's parents and the go- 
between; then they went before the ances- 
tral tablets and worshiped the groom's an- 
cestors; thence they proceeded to the 
banquet hall, the bride's head being covered 
with a veil or a peculiar headdress, where 
they exchanged small cups of aamshu (a 
liquor distilled from rice). Finally they 
partook together of their wedding dinner, 
being attended by the women servants of the 
household or some who were specially em- 
ployed for the occasion. That consummated 
the marriage as a ceremony; then the girPs 
name was struck oflf th^ register at her 
father's house, and added to that of her 
father-in-law, and that was all. 

Stories connected with betrothal and mar- 
riage customs are always interesting, and 
that is my justification for including one 
here. A betrothed couple in China were very 
often declared " to have had their feet tied 
together," the act of the gods being implied. 
The story which explains this allusion is as 
follows : In the time of the T'ang dynasty, 
Ui-ko was once a guest in the city of Sung. 
He observed an old man reading a book by 

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the light of the moon, who addressed him 
thus : " This is the register of the engage- 
ments in marriage for all the places under 
the heavens." He also said to him : " In 
my pocket I have red cords with which I 
tie together the feet of those who are to 
become husband and wife. When this cord 
has been tied, though the parties are of un- 
friendly families, or of diflFerent nations 
even, it is impossible to change their des- 
tiny. Your future wife," continued the old 
man, "is the child of the old woman who 
sells vegetables in yonder shop towards the 
north." In a few days XJi-ko went to see 
her, and found the old woman had in her 
arms a girl about a year old, who was ex- 
ceedingly ugly. He hired a man, who went 
and (as he supposed) killed the girl. 
Fourteen years afterwards, in the country 
of Siong-chiu, was a prefect whose family 
name was Mo, surnamed Tai, who gave XJi- 
ko in marriage a girl who, he affirmed, was 
his own daughter. She was very beautiful, 
but over one eyebrow she always wore an 
artificial flower. XJi-ko constantly asked 
her why she wore the flower and at length 
she said, "I am the daughter of the pre- 
fect's brother. My father died in the city 
of Sung when I was but an infant. My 
nurse was an old woman who sold vege- 
tables. One day she took me with her out 

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into the streets, when a robber struck me. 
The scar of the wound is still on my eye- 

The conviction of the Chinese that Fate 
or Heaven decides who are to become hus- 
band and wife, is quite as strange and as 
convincing as is our own declaration, 
^^ matches are made in heaven." If red 
cords or threads are not literally used to 
tie their feet together, the cups with which 
a couple pledge each other are not unfre- 
quently so united; the cords being taken 
from the wedding gifts, which are invariably 
tied up with such string. Some of those 
same red cords are braided temporarily into 
the groom's queue, while others are worked 
into the embroidered design of the bride's 
wedding shoes. 

Another very curious thing about the old- 
time marriage ceremony, if we may call it 
so, was the conspicuousness of big needles. 
The theory was that the thread could not 
properly be used without a needle and if it 
could not be used how were the two young 
people to be drawn together? 

Bearing in mind the primary reason for 
which the mythological ancestor of the 
Chinese instituted the right of marriage, 
which was that a son might carry on the an- 
cestral line, it was sufficient reason from 
their point of view to justify polygamy. 

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Therefore if the " Real Wife " had no son to 
perform the required sacrifices and offer the 
necessary prayers to the father's shades, and 
through that father to all the line of male 
ancestors until goodness knows how far 
back, it was permitted to take a secondary 
wife or concubine. 

But in her case there was none of the 
ceremony that has been recounted when the 
young people were truly married. Yet 
even to-day every Chinese man likes to 
have a number of sons of his own, even if 
the ancestral worship is strictly the prerog- 
ative of the eldest. To secure a lot of sons 
is probably sufficient to explain why it is 
that nearly every man in China, without ex- 
ception almost, is married and pretty 
nearly every woman, too. To justify the 
desire for many sons is an accepted excuse 
for concubinage. 

It must be borne in mind that there is no 
disgrace to this concubinage, any more than 
there is supposed to be nothing degrading 
about the plural wives " sealed '' to a Mor- 
mon. In China as a matter of fact, with 
the exception of the sentimental or reli- 
gious dignity of the eldest son, all the boys 
in a family are of absolutely equal rank 
and their legal status is the same, if there 
is some diflference between them in the mat- 
ter of inheritance due to primogeniture. 

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The obligations of ancestor worship neces- 
sitate the holding of the family real property 
in one hand, and therefore to that extent 
the eldest son is superior to his brothers. 

Now, whether the young man receives his 
bride into his father's " home '^ — as is usu- 
ally the case — op into one which he purposes 
setting up for himself, she is sure to have a 
dreary time for a while. Her mother-in- 
law has the right, conflnned by immemorial 
precedence, to make the young bride a 
slave, if the older woman is so minded ; and 
it is not to be wondered at that Chinese 
poets and story writers so often represent 
the forlorn creature passing her days in 
tears which overflow from a homesick heart. 

Because, while we have heard too many 
true tales about female infanticide in 
China, yet when the baby girl has been per- 
mitted to grow up, she certainly has a 
happy time so long as she remains in the 
"home'' of her own parents. Father, 
mother, and brothers, treat her as their little 
princess, and if — because of their thin 
family purse — she has to labor, as a rule 
her share of the task is small when com- 
pared with that of her brothers. 

Naturally then in the new home, the 
bride is likely to be unhappy. Etiquette 
and inflexible " old custom," the bugbear of 
China, forbid her husband showing her any 

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of the pleasing gallantries and attentions 
that are gladly given in America and En- 
TOTpe, and are naturally expected in onr part 
of the world. It is no part of the father-in- 
law's duty to treat the new daughter as he 
undoubtedly had borne himself towards his 
own girls. The honeymoon in China is 
inevitably a forlorn time for the bride, and 
there is nothing about it which the groom 
himself recalls with any special pleasure. 

When the two young people become ac- 
quainted then interest often ripens into the 
sincerest affection; something that may 
properly be dignified by the name of " love.'^ 
There are innumerable instances mentioned 
in history and in lighter literature of the 
devotion shown by a woman for her hus- 
band, and of her ability to render him 
material assistance in many ways; and on 
the other hand there are an equal number 
of pleasing proofs that the Chinese man has 
for his wife and children as sincere an af- 
fection as is to be found in any part of the 

If the first child is a boy, the mother's 
position is changed completely. She may 
now, in a measure, lord it over her mother- 
in-law, who certainly will no longer dare to 
make a drudge of her daughter-in-law. 
Amongst the Chinese there is naturally, 
when we think of their ideas as to the im- 

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portance of preserving the ancestral line, 
a strong preference for at least one boy, or 
more of them. But when the ancestral wor- 
ship has been sufficiently assured, and if the 
circumstances of the family are fairly good, 
then there is a desire for a girl. 

With the coming of the first child, whether 
it be a boy or a girl, we may say that family 
life has now begun; and it is often as 
happy an one as is that of the Japanese, 
and in a previous volume of this series it 
has been shown that such life amongst our 
Japanese neighbors is as happy as is to be 
found in any part of the world. 

The Chinese dwelling varies in size and 
in certain aspects just as much as do our 
own* There is little variation in the styles 
of architecture, and the wealthy men were 
scrupulously careful to shut themselves in 
behind high walls so that no strangers could 
look into the privacy of their home life. 
Conservative as the Chinese have forever 
been in most ways; yet some of them dis- 
play a surprising imitativeness in certain 
matters. The description of a wealthy mer- 
chant's house at Canton, or that of a suc- 
cessful scholar in any part of the country, 
or that of an official, or that of a villa in 
some picturesque spot or on the shores of 
a lake of great natural beauty, would an- 
swer for the same character of abode in the 

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extreme north — a reasonable concession to 
Divine Meteorology being made. 

There would be nothing for the outsider 
to see except the high wall made of sun- 
dried bricks; the tiled roofs of the build- 
ingSy for size and importance of the resi- 
dence is measured by the number of these 
rather than by the number of stories; be- 
cause even the multimillionaires (and there 
were and are a goodly number of these in 
China) rarely goes up more than one flight 
of steps. 

If riches increase and the family develops 
in children and grandchildren, the house 
spreads over more ground, and this necessity 
gives the chance for added courtyards, 
numerous miniature gardens, and all man- 
ner of quaintness in internal arrangement, 
attractive passages connecting the different 
parts of the establishment, and other details 
peculiar to the architecture of China. Is 
not our Chinese neighbor to be envied in 

I have always known that I was singu- 
larly fortunate in going to China when I 
was a lad, and especially so in that my 
good teacher, working with receptive ears 
and a fairly fluent tongue, speedily put me 
in command of the vernacular. When some 
of his loyal literary friends, those who 
were brave enough to refuse to ostracize 

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him because of his defection in the matter 
of religion, and who themselves had been 
more successful in their careers than he; 
and when several of the wealthy merchants 
as well as some of the grand officials even, 
like the Tau-tai (sub-prefect), learned that 
I could speak " The Clear Language," they 
often invited me to their homes. 

When I accepted these invitations, and 
I was always glad to do so, if possible, I 
was treated by them with a freedom that 
would not have been extended to their 
native friends, because of the strong re- 
straint caused by conventions. This pleas- 
ing treatment my hosts were unwilling to 
extend to any older foreigner. My mission- 
ary friends often saw the Chinese at home ; 
but it was never until they had induced 
at least some of the inmates to put away 
their heathen worship and accept Chris- 
tianity. Even in such cases there was al- 
ways a certain restraint, at least so they 
told me. 

With me, however, there was apparently 
no restraint at all. After the shyness of 
the first call had worn off, — the girls were 
just as free with me as they were with their 
own brothers. The mother and all the 
women folks went about the house just as 
they would have done had I not been there. 
My host made himself as informally com- 

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f ortable as he liked ; and this means a good 
deal in a Chinese home, because the shoes 
they wear are never very comfortable, and 
as soon as a man can do so he puts them 
off and goes about the house in slippers 
or stocking-feet or barefooted. If the 
weather is at all warm, he discards his outer 
robes with a desire to be as negligSe 
as possible. 

As for myself, when once in the family 
living room and the invariable formalities 
of speech and salutation had been ex- 
changed, I roamed about at my own sweet 
will, but was usually accompanied by some 
of the younger members of the family, who 
never seemed to get over their amazement 
that "an outside barbarian '' could con- 
verse with them in the only language that 
human beings ought to use. 

I never detected the first trace of privacy 
as we would use the word ; although I knew 
that into the "women's quarters'' it was 
not seemly for me to go. That restriction 
was put upon the older boys of the family 
quite as much as it was upon any adult 
male. I have seen many a treasure of bric- 
a-brac, many a bed of flowers hidden away 
in the heart of a city; but I never saw a 
truly comfortable room, measured by our 
own standards, in a Chinese home ! I don't 
believe there ever was one that would de- 

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serve the name according to our opinions. 
At Shanghai, Hongkong, Singapore, and 
some other places where the Chinese are 
brought constantly into association with for- 
eigners and have taken to imitating the ways 
of Europeans and Americans, in a measure 
at least, there are dwelling houses in which 
the natives have reception rooms and even 
dining halls that are furnished in what is 
called a European fashion. In some of 
these there are easy chairs, sofas, and divans 
so that the foreign visitors are made fairly 

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THE first Europeans to make acquaint- 
ance with our Chinese neighbors found 
them to be a remarkably industrious 
and intelligent people* John de Piano 
Carpini, an early missionary of the Romish 
Church, was at the Court of the Grand 
Khan of Tartary in the years 1245 to 1247, 
but he did not succeed in getting into China 
proper. He saw a number of Chinese at 
the Mongol Court, however, and although 
he called them heathen, as he was almost 
compelled to do any who differed from him 
in belief, yet he admitted that they were an 
intelligent people, having a method of writ- 
ing which was peculiarly their own. He 
added, moreover, that they were kindly in 
disposition, and in their way, fairly pol- 
ished. Carpini declared that from what his 
observation enabled him to determine, the 
Chinese of his time were admirable crafts- 
men in every art practised by man, and, he 
said, " their betters are not to be found in 
any part of the whole world.'' 

A Franciscan friar, Rubruquis, went to 
Asia some time after Carpini, and reached 


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Cathay, op China, which he aflarmed was 
the land of Ceres " with which we are made 
familiar by the writings of the Latin poets 
of the Augustan Age." Bubruquis said 
that the Cathayans, that is, the Chinese, 
were small people in stature and one of 
their marked peculiarities was to speak 
through their noses ; like practically all the 
Mongols, their eyes were narrow. 

He considered the Chinese to be first rate 
workmen in every branch of industry and 
art. He even went so far as to speak ap- 
provingly of their thorough knowledge of 
the virtues of all herbs, and he considered 
that they had an admirable skill in diagnosis 
by the pulse. I may very properly inter- 
polate here that a much later visitor, the 
famous Boman Catholic missionary Hue, 
who traveled in China during the first half 
of the nineteenth century, was also pleased 
with the skill of the Chinese doctors. 

Hue had the misfortune to break some of 
his ribs, and before he came to a place 
where he could secure medical assistance, 
a considerable fever had developed. When 
at last a physician and surgeon was found, 
he first administered a cooling acid drink, 
made with native vinegar, and not at all 
unlike lemonade, but unsweetened. This, 
with some decoctions of herbs, allayed the 
fever sufficiently to permit of attempting to 

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reduce the fractured ribs. Then the doctor 
bade his patient sit upright and suddenly 
dashed some ice-cold water into Hue's face. 

Naturally, of course, the patient gasped 
for breath violently, and this action so 
quickly and so greatly expanded the lungs 
that the ribs were thrown back into place 
and thereafter they promptly reunited. 

Although we may be amused by this 
crude, yet effective, surgery, yet we cannot 
share the opinions of Bubruquis and Hue 
that Chinese doctors were even entitled 
to be considered true physicians and sur- 

Bubruquis adds his testimony to show 
that the Chinese were skilled in every art, 
and were so far advanced in commercial 
affairs as to use bank-notes for a circulating 
medium. These were made **of pieces of 
cotton paper about a palm in length and 
breadth, upon which lines are printed re- 
sembling the seals of Mangu Khan," who 
was the third in succession from the famous 
Genghis Khan. 

The Polos, Nicolo, his brother Maffeo, and 
Marco, son of the first named, visited Ca- 
thay in the years 1275 to 1292 and were also 
much impressed with the industrial and 
commercial advance of the Chinese. That 
which especially attracted their attention 
was the use of bank-notes, which were not 

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used in Europe for quite four centuries 
after that time. 

In the British Museum, London, there is 
a Chinese bank-note of the fourteenth or 
eariy fifteenth century. The paper is al- 
most black. Marco Polo gives this explana- 
tion of the color: ^*The Emperor makes 
them [his subjects] take the bark of a cer- 
tain tree, in fact of the Mulberry tree, the 
leaves of which' are the food of the silk- 
worms — the trees being so numerous that 
whole districts are full of them. What 
they take is a certain fine white bast or 
skin which lies between the wood of the tree 
and the thick outer bark, and this they 
make into something resembling sheets of 
paper, but black." 

It will thus be evident that the occupa- 
tions of the Chinese have been numerous 
and of a very varied nature ever since those 
people were known to Europeans. It is un- 
necessary to state that industry and di- 
versity of occupation continue to be their 
characteristics, while that the scope has 
greatly extended within the past two or 
three centuries is also a matter of common 

There has been, however, marked de- 
terioration in some of their finer arts within 
less than a millennium. Pictorial art is now 
not to be compared with what it was in the 

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Street, Mukden 

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time of the Ming dynasty (1368 to 1644 
A. D.) and the earlier Sung dynasty (960 
to 1279 A. D.), when the artists of Japan 
sought wisdom and instruction in the studios 
of Chinese artists. 

The temptation to discuss the growth and 
characteristics of Chinese graphic art must 
be resisted, for even a cursory glance would 
more than supply me with material for an 
entire volume. Yet I cannot refrain from 
saying that in this particular art the Jap- 
anese, as scholars, have so far outstripped 
their former teachers, that no critic would 
think of comparing the ordinary pictures 
from the Japanese studios with the best 
from China during more than three cen- 

Many of the peculiarly Chinese charac- 
teristics of pictorial art have been forgot- 
ten and it is not likely that efforts will be 
made to revive them. It is sad, too, that the 
best features of the keramic art have been 
lost; it is declared that the paste, glaze, 
and decoration of the Ming dynasty can- 
not now be satisfactorily reproduced. 
This may be true, and yet I am inclined to 
doubt it. The pottery of that time was 
something that would be quite as attractive 
now as it ever was, could it be reproduced 
in shape, material, design, and finish. I 
rather think that there may come a demand 

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which will stimulate the students of applied 
chemistry to rediscover all that is neces- 
sary to give us what is said to be a " lost 

My reason for this opinion is based, in a 
measure, upon the following described inci- 
dent. A few years ago there were gathered 
round a luncheon table in Tokyo, a number 
of art enthusiasts, connoisseurs and manu- 
facturers, to do honor to a Western collec- 
tor of world-wide fame, who was making 
his first visit to Japan. His cabinets at 
home were filled with specimens of the best 
keramic art of Japan since the birth of the 
Satsuma ware, in the last decade of the 
eighteenth century ; as well as of the older, 
although much less attractive wares of pre- 
Satsuma times. 

In the center of the table stood a tall vase 
of apparently Chinese origin, of great an- 
tiquity, and a wonderful sample of a " lost 
art." Towards the end of the repast, when 
satisfied appetites gave better opportunity 
to discuss less material things than the good 
ones of the table, a European of recognized 
fame as an expert in keramics, remarked 
that it was an awful pity such charming 
shapes, such effective colors, and such 
marvelous glaze, could no longer be pro- 
duced. " For,'' said he, — " it is many cen- 
turies since men lost the art of making such 

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a treasure as that which ornaments our 
host's table/^ and he pointed to the vase. 

Then a manufacturer, whose masterpieces 
have been the admiration of all who were 
privileged to examine them, asked permis- 
sion to look at the vase closely. The host 
at once gave consent, although there was a 
twinkle in his eyes, and he told the servant 
to remove the flowers, empty the water, and 
bring the dry vase back to the table. This 
was done, and the manufacturer then turned 
the vase upside down, looked towards his 
host with a nod as of request, and received 
a permissive nod in reply. He then drew 
his pocket knife and chipped off a flake 
from the bottom thus revealing his own 
trade-mark ! 

The vase, that represented "lost arts" 
in paste, decoration, and glaze, had been 
made by himself, or at least in his own 
factory. I mention no names, but the story 
can be verified ; and this being so, I see no 
reason why all the " lost " features of this 
keramic industry might not be recovered. 
If it were made possible to supply " Peach- 
blow Vases," in every way equal to the ex- 
quisite confections of the Ming potteries; 
the owner of the pair that recently brought 
£4000 at auction, might feel that he has a 
cause for action in destroying the senti- 
mental value of his treasure. 

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But the occupations of our Chinese 
neighbors must be considered in a more 
practical way than hM been done. Agri- 
culture is so far in the lead that within the 
eighteen provinces of China proper, all the 
rest, if lumped together, would not equal 
it in value. The Chinese are essentially 
a farming class and this industry is still 
the one upon which they live. The Man- 
chus, the Mongolians, the Tibetans, and the 
Mahometans of Dzungaria and Turkestan, 
may be herdsmen and shepherds (very in- 
cidentally agriculturalists), but the impor- 
tance of their occupations shrinks to almost 
nothing when compared with that of the 
Chinese farmer. 

One could easily fill a large volume with 
an account of all the phases of agriculture. 
Probably the highest place would be given 
to silk culture because of its aesthetic at- 
tractiveness and its great money value. 
Tea, too, would rank very high, even if most 
Europeans and Americans have turned from 
Chinese teas to those of India and Japan, 
for so long as the hundreds of millions of 
the Chinese continue to, use tea, and the 
many millions of Russians do the same, 
there cannot be very serious diminution of 
the value of this industry. 

Let us hope that the Chinese certainly 
will not speedily change their common 

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beverage from tea to cold water. There are 
so many diseases which contaminated water 
spreads easily, that cholera and other fatal 
complaints would work even greater havoc 
among the people who hardly know what 
pure drinking water is. As water must 
be actually boiling properly to draw tea^ at 
least some of the danger is removed. 

All along the coast and in the inland 
waters, the fisherman in China follows an 
occupation that is very little behind in im- 
portance, that of his brothers in Japan. 
" Besides all these inner-water craft, there 
are the sea-going fishing smacks, and trawl- 
ers and numerous fishing-junks of one sort 
or another, which supply the enormous 
market for fish in China, dead and alive, 
salt and fresh, with such a variety that if 
one ate everything that comes out of the 
sea, as the Chinese do, there would be a new 
kind of fish for every day in the year. For 
they range from the baby oyster to the 
shark or dog-fish, from the toothsome, semi- 
translucent white-rice fish to the green- 
boned gasupa.* 

The commercial and industrial pursuits 
of our Chinese neighbors open a subject that 
is nearly inexhaustible. If there were 
bank-notes in circulation more than four 
hundred years before such things were 

• Ball, J. Dyer, The CJUneae at Home. 

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known in Europe, there must have been 
bankers or money-changers to use them; and 
there must have been merchants who found 
these convenient accessories to commerce 
and trade useful, else they would hardly 
have been in general circulation. Hence, it 
is correct to assume that the Chinese were 
merchants and tradesmen, while yet Europe 
was utterly ignorant of anything approach- 
ing even rude barter. 

Markets — in the broad, proper sense of 
the word — were an institution in China so 
long ago that record of their beginning is 
either lost or it never was noted. Not only 
is this true precisely of China proper; but 
it is likewise true in a general way of the 
outlying possessions of the Republic. 

One thing that the Chinese merchant 
learned long ago, and learned his lesson 
well, is that it pays to be honest. He is 
just as fond of dollars as any human being 
and he probably would not hesitate any 
more than the trickiest of his Yankee neigh- 
bors to get ten for one whenever he could 
do so. But if this getting ten for one to- 
day means the loss of trade that would 
bring two for one for twenty years, he is 
shrewd enough to prefer the continued day 
of small things. 

As toy-makers and workers in all manner 
of pretty little things, the Chinese artizans 

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are equal to any in the worlcL As gold 
and silversmiths, too, they are past masters. 
These latter are, however, about the most 
unreliable and tricky of the Chinese. Yet 
as imitators they are without peers. What- 
ever is put into their hands will be copied 
as to appearance with a faithfulness that 
all too often deceives the original owner. 
For there have been many instances of a for- 
eigner entrusting to an ivory-carver or sil- 
versmith or some other craftsman, an arti- 
cle to be copied, and long after finding that 
the one returned to him as the original was 
itself a copy, the wily workman having kept 
for himself the more valuable original. 

Occupations! there is no occupation 
known to man that does not now find its 
representative amongst our Chinese neigh- 
bors. But there are many occupations 
which were either entirely peculiar to 
China, or so very different from kindred 
occupations in America and Europe as to 
make them seem to be unique. Take, for 
example, the barbers. Until the passing of 
the Manchus and with them the shaved 
head and long queue of the men, the Chi- 
nese barbers were institutions in every way 
peculiar unto themselves. 

It has never been clear to me just what 
was the legal status of that queue. Some 
writers declare that the Manchu conquerors 

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of China insisted upon their newly-acquired 
subjects conforming to a fashion that was 
known to be peculiarly Manchu; and that 
the seventeenth century conquerors com- 
pelled the Chinese to shave their heads^ all 
but a round patch at the crown and to braid 
the hair which was allowed to grow, into a 
long pigtail. It was considered a mark of 
subjugation, and failure to conform to the 
order was cause enough for the non-wearer 
to lose his head. 

Other authorities declare that it never 
was made absolutely compulsory, but the 
politic Chinese soon saw the wisdom of 
paying their conquerors the sincere flattery 
of imitation. I have never seen an edict 
compelling the Chinese to adopt the peculiar 
style of hair-dressing. 

But to return to the barbers. They 
were usually peripatetic ; that is they rarely 
had a shop — for myself I must say I never 
saw such a fixed establishment. 

Often the barber had his regular custo- 
mers to whose homes he went daily, or as 
often as he was required to do so. He car- 
ried two nests of drawers slung at the ends 
of his carrying-pole, which' he bore on one 
shoulder. In the drawers were the imple- 
ments of his trade; but there were besides 
lancets (if that name may be applied to the 

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knives which the barber used to let blood) 
and various nostrums which he was con- 
tinually trying to persuade his customers 
to buy. In these respects the Chinese bar- 
ber was not altogether unlike his European 
congener of a very short time ago, who was, 
as we all know, a combination of barber 
and chirurgeon. 

One of the barber's boxes was the right 
height for a seat — if he chanced to find 
a customer in the street. Then took place, 
al fresco, the process of unbraiding the 
queue, shaving the head, probing the ears 
and nose, and if there were hairs, to cut 
them out with a peculiarly shaped, narrow 
razor. The victim's eyes, too, were often 
^' cleansed " by the barber, who turned the 
lids inside out and wiped them with a brush 
or a tuft of cotton which was not infallibly 
treated antiseptically after each operation. 
Small wonder that diseases of the eye were 
so common as they used to be in China, and 
are even now, comparatively. 

The shaving of the man in the public 
streets aroused no curiosity whatever; the 
passers-by did not stop for an instant, and 
even a woman would occasionally call upon 
the barber in the broad highway (no, nar- 
row, for " broad '' streets were unknown in 
the true Chinese city), to have her face 

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shaved and her ears, nose, and eyes attended 
to. The itinerant barber will probably dis- 
appear before long. 

Space does not permit of a lengthy ac- 
count of the Chinese sedan-chair coolies. 
They were, to be sure, not altogether unlike 
similar porters in Europe and even in 
America a century or so ago; but their oc- 
cupation was conducted in a somewhat dif- 
ferent manner. Nor can I dwell at length 
upon the coffin-makers. All that I can do 
is to say that this occupation was a most 
important one; because very often a man 
bought his coffin years before he had actual 
use for ity and he gave careful attention 
to the making of this, his last bed^ and was 
not in the least superstitious about taking 
it to his home, however much he may have 
dreaded bad luck in other ways. Our 
Chinese neighbors, in many of their occupa- 
tions were certainly a very peculiar people; 
but I imagine that with the general turning 
towards the ways of the rest of the world, 
many of those peculiar customs, trades, oc- 
cupations, and professions, will become as 
commonplace as 'they are in every other 
quarter of the globe. 

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IP we give place to the ladies, as gal- 
lantry commands and as consideration 
makes agreeable, it has to be admitted that 
in former times the circle of a Chinese 
grown-up woman's life was not measured 
by a very long radius. If she belonged to 
the poorer classes, her life as a woman be- 
gan when she married and went to her hus- 
band's home. Here she became at once the 
slave of her parents-in-law and a household 
drudge in every way. 

About her only pleasure was the occa- 
sional or definite visit to the temple with 
which her husband's family affiliated. 
This might be once a moon or, in exceptional 
cases, twice a moon. I use the word 
"moon" instead of "month," because the 
subdivision of the year was measured by 
the waxing and waning of the moon, and 
those periods were called distinctly 
"moons." The first day was that of the 
new moon, the fifteenth — or very near it 
— was the day of the full moon, and these 
were the times usually chosen for those 


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temple dissipations that were often the 
only pleasure a poor woman knew. 

I do not mean to say that the maternal 
instinct — as strong with the Chinese 
woman as with any of her sisters the world 
over — did not often find a source of pleas- 
ure, even in a hovel, from taking care of the 
little ones and watching them grow up to 
boyhood and girlhood. But poverty in 
China had an intenseness which very few 
of our people know; and "cares and sor- 
rows and childbirth's pains '' meant more to 
a poor Chinese woman than it did to most 
of her Western sisters. 

It was usually considered proper for a 
wife to accompany her husband on the an- 
nual or semi-annual visit to the graves of 
his ancestors. That is, if grinding poverty 
did not compel the man to neglect this duty 
which was considered almost sacred. The 
importance of this ceremony will readily be 
understood if my readers can only put 
themselves for a moment into the position 
of the Chinese who were taught to believe 
that the worship of ancestors and attention 
to their mcmes in every way, was the only 
chief spiritual duty of man. 

Visits to the family tombs may be made 
at any time and are quite as appropriate as 
our own visits to the special comers of the 
cemetery that are dear to us, and the plac- 

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ing of fresh flowers upon the graves of those 
whom we have loved. But in China the 
great occasion for these visits was one hun- 
dred and six days after the winter solstice, 
during the period that was called tsing- 
ming in the old or Lunar calendar. If the 
ceremony is kept up now that the Gre- 
gorian calendar has supplanted the Lunar, 
this ceremony will take place somewhere 
about the 7th of April. 

In the southern province of Kwan-tung, 
Canton the capital, it was called pai shan, 
or ** worshiping on the hills.*' The gen- 
eral name for the festival was siu fan ti, 
or "sweeping the graves." In any lo- 
cality, while the general name was under- 
stood, there was pretty sure to be a special, 
local name, similar to that used by the peo- 
ple of Kwan-tung. The Cantonese name 
was very appropriate, because the first im- 
portant requirement in the matter of fix- 
ing the situation of a grave, was to get it on 
a hillside so that the fung-shm should be 

An ideal Chinese grave was cut into the 
face of a gradually sloping hill, which was 
dug away in front of the actual grave so 
as to leave a small amphitheater shaped 
very like the Greek letter Omega, the ends 
of the horseshoe-like structure usually end- 
ing in a small pilaster, which might be used 

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as a stand for a Tase of flowers, or the 
figures of the Dogs of Fuh, "Buddha's 
Dogs/' who were the special guardians of 

The rounding sides of the amphitheater 
rose gradually to the middle of the tomb's 
side walls; and here, in the face of the hill, 
is the tombstone, bearing the posthumous 
name of the dead person — for the departed 
is not to be spoken of or thought of by his 
name during life, and a priest or a geoman- 
cer must select an appropriate and lucky 
one to be placed on the tombstone and upon 
the ancestral tablets. 

Immediately in front of the tombstone 
stands a stone slab, supported on four feet 
or rough stones; and on this is placed the 
tray which contains the articles for sacri- 
fice, the samshu for libations, candles, 
paper, and incense. At the siu fan ti the 
grave was repaired, the floor of the amphi- 
theater swept, the dead leaves and litter 
cleared away frorii the surrounding liand, 
and at the close of the service three pieces 
of turf were placed at the front and back, 
under which or into which by means of small 
sticks, long strips of red and white paper 
were placed. These served to indicate that 
the proper rites had been performed, be- 
cause sometimes, if a grave stood neglected 

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for three years, the ground might be plowed 
over and the land resold. 

In addition to the offering at the grave 
itself, the worshipers came provided with 
food and drink sufficient to permit of their 
picnicking. After the food and aamahu had 
stood for a little while on the stone tablet, 
it was assumed that the spirits of the de- 
ceased had partaken of all they needed, and 
the material residuum was added to the 
mourners' feast. Such occasions as this 
often gave a Chinese woman in former times 
one of her very few pleasures in the way of 
recreation. But she took no part in the 

I have no doubt the Chinese women used 
to get some pleasure from visiting their 
friends and gossiping with them in the 
privacy of the women's apartments. At 
any rate, their own writers give them credit 
for being, in this respect, very much like 
others of their sex in all countries. One 
conspicuous effect of the reorganization of 
China has been the coming out of women, 
both old and young, from the privacy which 
was formerly forced upon them. It is not 
altogether pleasing to their fellow country- 
men, nor to their friends in other lands 
that some of the demonstrations that have 
accompanied this emancipation have been 

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of a vigorous, rather militant, kind that is 
disagreeably in contrast with the reputed 
modesty of the Chinese woman. 

At such places as Shanghai, Hongkong, 
and Singapore, where Chinese merchants 
and others, who can afford to do so, have 
taken to carriage driving very kindly, one 
would see every afternoon at the customary 
time for taking an airing in this manner, 
handsome carriages in which were seated 
the man himself, his wife, and sometimes 
their children. One rather amusing feature 
of this diversion is that not infrequently, 
the coachman will be a European done up 
in appropriate livery, and seeming to think 
there is nothing degrading in his being the 
servant of a Chinese master. This rather 
anomalous spectacle is not to be witnessed 
at other places, where " foreign-fashions ^' 
have not become popular. The motor-car 
is rapidly supplanting the horse-carriage, 
yet as likely as not the chauffeur will be a 

To the credit of Chinese men of all ranks 
it is pleasing to say that women were al- 
ways treated with consideration and respect 
whenever they were in a crowd, at the street 
markets, temple gatherings, theatrical per- 
formances in public, or any other occasion 
when people gathered together in great 

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A pnblic theatrical performance in China 
used to be a matter of great importance. 
Sometimes an official or a wealthy man 
would engage a company of players to give 
a performance for the benefit of the public 
at large. The stage would be set up at 
any convenient spot (usually nearby a 
temple) and the play^ if one of their old- 
time historical dramas, might run on con- 
tinuously for days togetjier. The perform- 
ance would commence early in the morn- 
ing, continue until the noon intermission 
for dinner, again until supper time, and 
then again until late at night or perhaps 
early in the morning if an act was so pro- 

To witness such a performance was one 
of the few pleasures of women of the lower 
classes, provided the husband did not object 
to his spouse neglecting her household 
duties. Often the performance would be 
given in the privacy of a courtyard in a 
dwelling house or an official residence. In 
such cases the women of the family and 
their invited friends would witness the play 
through a bamboo curtain hung at one side 
of the courtyards. The curtain did not al- 
ways prevent this group of spectators being 
seen, but it was the proper thing for the 
men to see nothing of them ! 

For girls, there were a good many sports 

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108 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

and pleaaures. The little girls of China 
are just as fond of dolls as are our own, and 
they are supplied with these treasures in 
quantity, and kind according to the family 
means. In the house of a wealthy man the 
collection of dolls is often wonderful. Un- 
til the girls get to be eight or ten years of 
age, they are likely to be as big " Tomboys '^ 
as are to be seen anywhere. They play with 
their brothers and boy friends in terms of 
full equality. To be sure, if there is a baby 
in a poor family — and there always is one ! 
— it will be tied to the back of an elder 
sister; but that does not seem to interfere 
at all with the activity of the little nurse. 
If the baby loses interest in watching the 
game over her bearer's shoulder, it goes to 
sleep as comfortably as if it were in the 
most capacious cradle ever rocked. 

Until the girl is too old to romp with 
boys they play together — or separately if 
numbers suffice, at many games that are 
quite like some our children play. There 
is one that is called "Selecting Fruit,'' 
which is quite as popular with girls as it is 
with boys. Two leaders are appointed who 
then choose, one by one, all the other play- 
ers. Each one must take the name of a 
fruit, and a leader blindfolds one of her 
side. Then one of the opposite side steals 
quietly out, touches the blindfolded player, 

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and returns to her place, or — if they like 

— all change positions. 

The blind is now removed and " It " tries 
to guess who touched her, using every arti- 
fice to make the guilty one betray herself. 
All her partners support her loyally, laugh 
when she laughs, look blank if she does so. 
After a few minutes "It" must guess: if 
successful the player identified goes over to 
" Its " side : if wrong, " It " stays with the 
enemy. So the game goes on until one side 
is wiped out. There is not space to give 
attention to any other of these games. 

The Chinese adult man takes his pleasure 
in some ways that strike us as being very 
odd. Kite-flying and fighting crickets, for 
instance, are sports in which grown men 
spend a lot of time, and they waste a good 
deal of money occasionally in the latter. 
Goodly sums are paid for an exceptionally 
strong and pugnacious cricket; but it is the 
bets that deplete or swell the owner's purse 

— in just the same way as the result of a 
cock-fight will make or break the owners 
of the two birds in this country or else- 
where. Chinese men rarely "treaf their 
friends to aamshu; but very often at a 
meeting in a restaurant or on a " Flower- 
boat " or at any other place, one man will 
challenge another to a drinking bout called 
" Showing the Fist.'' Each puts one hand 

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behind him and then suddenly they bring 
them forth each sticking out one op more 
fingers, and at the same moment shouting a 
number. The object is to guess the aggre- 
gate number of, fingers thrown out by both. 
But it is not the winner who gets the re- 
ward; the loser must drain a tiny cup of 
aamshu. The similarity between this game 
and the Italian mora is rather striking. 

Capping verses, matching rhymes, and a 
number of similar games are the relaxation 
of educated men, only again it is not the 
winner who is rewarded with a cup of 
samahu but the loser must pay the penalty 
for failure by drinking a cup. 

It is a great mistake to suppose that 
grown men in China know nothing about 
athletics. All the officials had good train- 
ing in archery and horsemanship. Many 
of them, long ago, had to learn how to use 
the old-time fire arm called " matchlock.'* 
Civilians, too, were often fond of exercis- 
ing in these ways. 

Young men and others who were well on 
towards middle age, frequently played a 
game that would satisfy the most exacting 
in the way of skill and activity. All know 
the shape of a Chinese man's shoes, that it 
has a heavy sole of felt, often two inches 
thick, faced with leather and without a heel. 
The game I mean, which was called " Keep- 

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ing it in the Air/' was played with a shut- 
tlecock made of a piece of cork or very light 
woody with small feathers stuck into it to 
make it sail true and fall properly. 

The players stood in a circle, and one 
tossed the shuttlecock into the air; as it 
fell he struck it with the side of the sole of 
one shoe and drove it towards another 
player who had to strike it with his sole. 
No one was permitted to touch the shuttle- 
cock with his hand. If it fell upon his body, 
or if he failed in the kick and the shuttle- 
cock fell to the ground, the player gave a 
forfeit. The forfeits were occasionally re- 
deemed in somewhat the same way as in our 
own games; but usually the loser had to 
drink a cup of aamshu for each forfeit. If 
the game was played at a private party or 
social gathering, the aamshu was provided 
by the host; if not, the man paid for it him- 

I do not know of any greater mistake 
than some have made about the Chinese 
lads and boys, than to say they were lacking 
in games. If my statement is not accepted 
let the reader refer to Dr. I. T. Headland's 
"The Chinese Boy and Girl," and he will 
be convinced that childlife in China was 
never utterly devoid of that pleasure which 
sports give. The lads matched our boys' 
"Prisoner's Base,'' only they called theirs 

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" Forcing the City Gates/' and in playing 
it they sang: 

He stuck a feather in his hat 
And hurried to the town 
And children met him with a horse 
For the gates were broken down. 

They played " Tip-cat/' using a block of 
wood which was tapped slightly to make it 
jump into the air, and then it was struck 
with a stick to drive it "out of bounds." 
Of vigorous plays, calling for muscle, their 
" Man-wheel " is a sample which proves that 
the Chinese boys knew something more than 
" sober little games.'' One big, strong boy 
stands up as the Hub; at his sides stand 
two middle-sized boys, facing in opposite 
directions and clasping hands over the 
Hub's shoulders. Then two quite small 
boys stand outside again and face as do the 
Spokes who grasp these Felloes by their 
girdles. The Felloes grip the Spokes' 
girdles with one hand and give the other 
to the Hub around the shoulders of the 

Now they revolve, faster and faster, until 
the Felloes are lifted from their feet and 
stand out nearly at right angles to the Hub. 
If this game is not vigorous enough to sat- 
isfy the most exacting, I do not know what 
more is to be said. 

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Since the establishment of mission schools 
and colleges and now that university life is 
an accomplished fact^ track athletics^ boat 
racing^ tennis, baseball, cricket, and all the 
sports of the West are gaining in popularity 
every day. In communities where the Eng- 
lish influence predominates, cricket takes 
precedence; but generally baseball is more 
popular with Chinese boys and young men, 
just as it is with the Japanese; and the 
former play it with the same zest as the lat- 
ter, although lack of practise is seen in that 
Chinese players are not yet a match for 
the Japanese. 

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THERE seems to have been in China 
from very ancient times, a sharp line 
of demarcation drawn between the literati 
and all classes of society below them. 
There were, also, the ordinary literary men, 
those who felt themselves to be officials, if 
the course of events turned out happily for 
them; and who were considered by all in 
the lower ranks to be of the literatL Be- 
tween these and the actual mandarins them- 
selves, the division was not so sharply de- 
fined. But there does not appear ever to 
have been a time when the merchant and 
the trading classes were looked upon with 
the open scorn and contempt which was 
shown them in Japan, certainly until the 
early years of the Meiji era, and which have 
not yet entirely disappeared in that country. 
Because, say what we will, a civil official, 
an officer of the army or navy, and all who 
are not actually engaged in trade or com- 
merce, do still in Japan consider themselves 
to be superior to those who earn money in 
buying and selling. It is but a few years 
ago that at my own table in Japan, a 


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wealthy banker^ who had large investments 
in profitable industrial enterprises, was 
treated with chilly courtesy by the officials 
and professors who were present, and who 
probably would have been openly rude to 
the "tradesman" had not they, too, been 
my guests and constrained to recognize that 
all my guests were entitled to courtesy. 

Such invidious distinctions are not to be 
noted in China, upon the few occasions 
when officials, military officers, educational- 
ists, and merchants meet together. It is 
true that unless some special reason appears 
for such a commingling of different classes, 
all danger of something unpleasant occur- 
ring is avoided by not calling them to- 
gether. I am sure that the difference be- 
tween Chinese and Japanese ways is an 
effect of long experience. Prom time im- 
memorial the Chinese have been engaged in 
commercial enterprises. Their caravans 
went westward and southward to meet such 
companies from remote countries; and not 
unfrequently the heads or proprietors of 
those native caravans were entrusted with 
duties that were often of a diplomatic 
nature. The same thing may be said of 
over-seas expeditions to the islands of the 

In consequence, such important com- 
mercial men were shown a degree of re- 

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spectf ul consideration which was in a meas- 
ure reflected upon all reputable members 
of their class. Furthermore, the guild sys- 
tem in China has for a very long period 
exerted an excellent influence in keeping 
r^sprit de corps up to a high standard; so 
that amongst all classes of the Chinese 
themselves as well as throughout the for- 
eign community, the word of a reputable 
merchant is considered as good as his bond. 

In Japan, on the contrary, buying and 
selling for profit, in other words commerce 
and trade of all kinds, have always had a 
b§,d reputation; and from the time when 
the country was closed to foreigners, about 
three hundred years ago, until the reopen- 
ing of Japan and the entire reorganization 
of all classes, the reputation of the merchant 
went from bad to worse. There were no 
commercial dealings with reputable foreign- 
ers to improve this state of affairs by the 
force of good example. 

Yet there are social lines drawn in China 
and the man who ventures to disregard 
them is sure to meet with a stinging re- 
buke. I fancy that if a well-to-do fisher- 
man should persuade a go-between to ask 
the hand of a great Chinese merchant's 
daughter in marriage, there would not be 
much ceremony in sending the messenger 
about his business; but if the tables were 

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turned, and a member of the goldsmiths' 
guild at Canton should seek an alliance with 
the fisherman's family, it would be responded 
to and none of the goldsmiths' fellow crafts- 
men would think their colleague had de- 
meaned himself. 

Again, if a Shanghai or Tientsin banker, 
one who easily has command of several mil- 
lion taelSy should presume to suggest an 
alliance, through marriage of his son with 
the daughter of even a very humble man- 
darin, there would either be a row or the 
proposal would be treated with silent scorn. 
Whereas, let overtures come from the man- 
darin, or even a provincial viceroy, to the 
banker, and all would be well. The young 
woman would be accepted as a member of 
the social class to which her husband be- 
longed, and nothing would be said about her 
previous rank or lack of it. 

As an extreme example of what good, in 
a certain way, this obliterating of rank 
through marriage may accomplish, there are 
plenty of cases on record where women of 
the unfortunate class have been taken to be 
the concubine of some important official, 
and eventually made by him his "First 
Wife." Her past was absolutely ignored 
and no one ever dreamed of holding it 
against her. 

Of course, I have been speaking of condi- 

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118 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

tions as they were in China nntil eighteen 
months ago. We do not yet know* to what 
extent the reorganization of that country 
may go in obliterating former and time-hon- 
ored distinctions of social rank. 

Until within a very short time the dis- 
tinguishing mark between the Chinese 
themselves and the Manchns was the small 
bandaged foot of the Chinese women. If 
the word caste could ever have been applied 
properly to the Chinese it would be appro- 
priate to this custom; which results in our 
opinion, as well as in that of the Manchus, 
in a hideous deformity; but from Peking 
southward) and gaining in influence and ex- 
tent as one went towards the south, it was 
a mark of gentility. Even a farmer's wife 
and daughters in Kwan-tung province felt 
that they were out of their proper class if 
their feet were their natural size. 

I have asked many literary men to tell 
me if the books gave any information as to 
when this absurd custom was introduced 
and why it was done; but I never got any 
satisfactory information. Some said that 
there was an empress of the Chang Dynasty 
(1776 to 1122 B. C.) who had club-feet and 
was therefore compelled to wear ill-shaped, 
small shoes. She induced the emperor, 
Chung-ting, to order all the court ladies to 
compress their feet so that theirs might 

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WMEN with Small Feet 

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look like her own. This was one story of 
the origin of the custom. Another was that 
Emperor Taitsong II, of the T'ang Dynasty 
was infatuated with one of his concubines, 
Puang-hi by name, whose vanity led her to 
bind her own feet in order to enhance her 
charms. The emperor then made it known 
that all ladies should imitate the Beauty, 
and thus was the custom established. But 
I am sure both these stories were made to 
order, and that nobody really knows the 
beginning or the why and wherefore of the 
repulsive custom. 

The Manchus were always opposed to it; 
but so long as they compelled the Chinese 
men to wear the queue, they seemed to have 
felt that they could not very well interfere 
with what the women did. Yet a feeling 
against these unnaturally small feet began 
to assert itself amongst the Chinese them- 
selves some years ago ; and in the north es- 
pecially, absurdly small feet or natural feet 
do not now mark so distinctly social classes 
as they did once upon a time. 

There does not seem to have been in China 
any time a pariah class, like the Eta of 
Japan. If it is true that those unfortunate 
I>eople owe their degraded position to their 
occupation of handling dead animals, pre- 
paring hides for the tanner, etc., there could 
not, of course, have been any similar rea- 

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son for the existence of such a class in 
China, because the Chinese have always 
been great meat eaters ; therefore slaughter- 
ers and butchers were numerous, and there 
was nothing repulsive about handling dead 

Yet there are some very low classes in 
China. The boat people of Canton are con- 
sidered, and justly, to be disreputable in 
every way. The similar class on the great 
river of the north, Yang-tze, as well as other 
streams, is similarly ostracised. Along the 
coast, too, there are communities in villages 
to which no reputable Chinese would dare 
to go, and even the officials venture only 
when supported by a gunboat. Aside from 
these classes, that are outside of the pale of 
good society, and the distinction of the 
guilds, there is not much to say about social 
classes among the common people of China. 
The lines between the guilds themselves and 
between them and the rest of the people 
are rapidly disappearing, so that under the 
good influences of reform that the Ee- 
public^s government is promoting, the true 
democracy of the Chinese people is likely 
to reassert itself. 

The fact that in China there is not yet 
that mingling in general society of the two 
sexes, which we are accustomed to look upon 
as one of the charms of our own social in- 

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stitutionSy must have had a great effect. 
It drove the men to seek amusement in base 
ways, so that even men who were consid- 
ered, in their own society, quite moral, took 
part in what would scarcely be tolerated 
openly among us, or if they refrained from 
these they were likely to dawdle away their 
time in a foolish manner. Social stratifi- 
cation was quite sharp enough to prevent 
the search for entertainment in the lower 
grade or mental improvement in the higher. 
There were not, until a few months ago 
one might almost say, any political parties 
in China to exert an influence upon social 
classes; but the promise for the immediate 
future seems to indicate that there will soon 
be plenty of them. Yet secret societies have 
been in existence throughout China for an 
extremely long time, and in many ways 
have given a good deal of trouble. They 
have not marked any special class, although 
they have always been a feature of Chinese 
life, and in a certain sense may be consid* 
ered as dividing the people of the eighteen 
provinces into a class opposed to the Man- 
chu rule. The first of these societies to at- 
tract official attention was the famous Pih- 
lien Kiao, or " White-lily Sect,'' which sub- 
sequently changed its name to the Tien-ti 
hwui, or San-hoh hwui, the latter meaning 
*^The Triad Society." Both names were 

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122 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

used until a comparatively short time ago, 
the former in the northern provinces, the 
latter in the southern, and throughout the 
East Indies, wherever there was a Chinese 

It is not certain that the ** White-lily 
Sect'' was actively connected with an in- 
surrection which broke out in 1803, but 
since the Manchu government was informed 
by its secret agents that the prime object 
of the society was the overthrow of that 
government, it found excuse to punish the 
members as constituting a dangerous class. 

Amongst the officials there were eight 
privileged classes. The privileges of the 
imperial blood and connections of the im- 
perial family, as well as those of the nobil- 
ity, were the only ones of importance, and 
these went no further than the character of 
punishment for offenders. There were a 
few noblemen in the old regime, but what 
their status will be under the reorganized 
government remains to be seen. 

Of the officials below the imperial family 
and privileged nobility, there were nine 
grades, each designated by a different col- 
ored ball at the top of the hat, or skull cap 
when such was worn, and by the embroidery 
on their official robes. All literati below 
the ninth grade were permitted to wear a 
red ball on the hat, sometimes of coral, at 

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others of cord twisted into a button. This 
same sort of button was often seen on the 
cap of civilians, but it was always of 
smaller size than that worn by the literati 
and the Chinese themselves readily distin- 
guished it from the badge of the scholars. 

Those lowest rank literati were permitted 
to have an oriole embroidered on the breast 
of their robes, while the unofficial members 
of the famous Hanlin college might use the 
egret. Those officials constituted a very 
exclusive class, when once they had attained 
their rank. Nevertheless, nominally at 
least, this government service class, which 
included civil and military officials, was 
opened to any young man in the empire, 
with certain exceptions on account of lowly, 
rather degrading occupation, and other dis- 
abilities which would have been held suffi- 
cient to disbar him in any country. 

While not exactly a social class unto 
themselves within the precise meaning of 
this chapter's title, soothsayers, magicians, 
geomancers, fortune-tellers, and all peoples 
of those kinds, and they are very numerous 
in China, may be considered as much for 
sentiment as anything else. It was but 
natural that the Chinese people, being such 
confirmed ancestor worshipers as they 
were and are, should wish to know how it 
fares with their friends who have gone be- 

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fore into the mysterious land which lies at 
the end of the " Yellow Road." 

The priests were always willing to pro- 
cure this information for their parishioners 
and needless to say, the character of that 
information depended largely upon the 
amount of fee which the enquirer provided. 

But there were others who did not belong 
to the priesthood that were supposed to be 
able to pierce the veil of mystery. One 
most effective way of getting a direct an- 
swer to an important question put to the 
gods or to an ancestor, was by the use of 
two pieces of wood. If a slender and rather 
long spinning top, without a metal peg, is 
split carefully into two equal parts they 
will closely resemble the K<p-pue, the acces- 
sories by which the answer sought is made 

After, the proper god or goddess has been 
decided upon, and of course a priest is of 
the utmost assistance in deciding which 
deity is especially competent to answer, or 
is in closest relationship with the departed 
ancestor, incense must be offered and a 
quantity of paper money burnt to pay the 
deity's fee. This money is merely some 
small squares of very common paper, in the 
center of which is a little dab of gold or 
silver foil. Very often the metal is base, 
but if the priest has been properly cared 

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for with good money, the god or goddess 
is easily humbugged. Of course the fee put 
into the priest's hands is not of this im- 
material kind. 

At the proper moment the suppliant rises 
from his knees, passes the blocks through 
the smoke of the incense sticks to endow 
them with mystical power, and then throws 
them down in front of the idol. If the flat 
surface of one comes up and that of the 
other down, the answer is affirmative; that 
is fayorable. If both oyal surfaces come 
up, the answer is negative, unfavorable. If 
both flat surfaces come up, the answer is in- 
different, neither good nor bad. 

Spirit-rapping, magical writing on sand 
by means of a long stick influenced by a 
spirit, and all the tricks of our mediums, 
were known in China thousands of years 
before they were used in the United States 
of America. One medium frequently em- 
ployed by women, another woman it hardly 
need be said, professed to secure informa- 
tion from the spirit world by means of a 
tiny image made of willow wood. This had 
to be exposed to the dew for forty-nine 
nights in order to endow it with its special 
functions, and then when the proper caba- 
listic ceremony had been performed, it was 
ready for work. 

The image was placed on the medium's 

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stomachy and the woman then went into a 
trance, during which questions addressed 
to the ancestor or the gods through her were 
answered by the image. The trick of ven- 
triloquism is not very skilfully concealed in 
this performance. All people of this class 
were reckoned to be outside the circle of 
respectable classes; they were grouped with 
actors, contortionists, and all of the kind 
who entertain in those base ways. 

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IT is a great pity that tnith compels me 
to say the record of Court life in China 
as far back as we can get anything like re- 
liable information concerning it, rarely 
gives ns a picture that is satisfactory in 
any way. It has already been shown how 
the dynasties of China were created, al- 
ways because a preceding family of sover- 
eigns had grown dissipated, weak, and 
either incompetent or so thoroughly bad as 
to disgust the whole people. 

Of the dynasties before the time when 
we are justified in speaking with some con- 
fidence, it is useless to say anything. I 
fear that life at the Chinese Court could 
not have been very calm and secure in the 
seventh century before the Christian era, 
because the first of the famous Trio of 
Philosophers — Lao Tze, Eong-fu Tze, and 
MingTze — after holding the position of 
keeper of the imperial archives, became so 
dissatisfied by the disorder and riotous liv- 
ing around the throne and the general law- 
lessness of the times, that he gave up his 
post and turned recluse. 


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Gonf uciuSy that is Kong-f u, in the succeed- 
ing century either could not op would not 
put up with the sensuality and debauchery 
of courts; for he too gave up in despair the 
task of trying to keep rulers within bounds 
of propriety, and he spent his remaining 
days wandering from State to State. His 
opinion of the general character of civil 
rulers is illustrated by the story that once 
he heard a woman weeping and lamenting 
in a bamboo thicket by the side of the road. 
Seeking her himself, he inquired the cause 
of her grief and she said : ** My father was 
killed by a tiger at this spot; my only son 
was likewise devoured by the same cruel 
beast; and now my husband, too, has been 
slaughtered in the same way.'' " Then why 
do you not move away from this fatal spot? " 
inquired the sage. "Because,'' answered 
the woman, "save for the tiger, there is 
peace here; and wherever there are officials 
there is none." "My children," solemnly 
said the master to his followers, "remem- 
ber this, the ravages of a merciless tiger are 
easier to bear than the cruelties of court- 

Commencing with the dynasty that was 
established by him who called himself " The 
First Emperor" of China, Chwangsiang 
wang, of the house of T'sin, the account of 
Court life from one dynasty to another con- 

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firms entirely what I have said. Of life at 
the Court in the city of Hienyang, that is 
the Si-gan Pu of more recent times, which 
stands on the bank of the Wei River, in 
Shensi province I shall speak for a moment. 
Of this capital of the early T'sin Dynasty, 
we get but an occasional glimpse in the old- 
est writings, sufficient only to permit us 
to say that it was licentious and oftentimes 

That there was splendor in a certain way 
is evident from the fact that the palace 
which Chi Hwangti built at enormous ex- 
pense combined in style and proportions, 
as nearly as possible, the features of all the 
royal dwellings of the kings who had been 
subjugated by him ; and in which he installed 
all the precious furniture and property 
which those princes had possessed. 

But the restless monarch appears to have 
derived little satisfaction from his magnif- 
icent apartments, with their gorgeous con- 
necting colonnades and galleries; for being 
in constant dread of the Huns, that is the 
Mongols, he was often at the frontier super- 
intending the measures taken to keep out 
those would-be invaders, and building of 
the Great Wall of China, which after all 
did not accomplish what had been planned. 

Even this monarch's mad folly in at- 
tempting to destroy the books containing 

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all records of the past^ was unsuccessful, 
for, as the historian Klaproth* says: 
"They were not in fact all lost; for in a 
country where writing is so common it was 
almost impossible that all the copies of 
works universally respected could be de- 
stroyed, especially at a time when the ma- 
terial on which they were written was very 
durable, being engraved with a stylus on 
bamboo tablets, or traced upon them with 
dark-colored, permanent varnish." 

This great " First Emperor " was an ab- 
ject coward in some ways. His supersti- 
tious dread of death was so great that he 
was forever calling upon his magicians to 
discover a magical liquor that would at 
least give him a long life, if it did not secure 
for him human immortality. One of the 
magicians told him he was under the influ- 
ence of malign spirits, who were constantly 
pursuing him with the design of killing him 
and getting possession of his soul to tor- 
ment it. This charlatan told his imperial 
master that the only way he could escape 
those fiends, was to sleep in a different room 
of his palace every nighty and that he must 
not, in any circumstances, let it be known 
beforehand which room he was going to oc- 
cupy during the succeeding night. 

This awful declaration filled Chi Hwangti 

* Klaproth, J., Memoires sur VAsie. 

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with consternation, and the outcome was 
the palace which has been mentioned, con- 
taining — besides the gorgeous halls and 
and state apartments — so many bedrooms 
that a stranger would have been lost in 
wandering through them. The Emperor's 
wish was to mystify the evil-minded de- 
mons ; but since Chinese are not usually so 
ingenuous as this, some of the writers inti- 
mate that the multiplicity of sleeping 
apartments was for the purpose of accommo- 
dating the great retinue of concubines and 
ladies in waiting. 

There is little wonder that the Chinese 
philosophers and historians dilate upon the 
immoral influence of dissolute women at 
the courts of their rulers ; for they were the 
cause of the downfall of many a dynasty. 
Yet it was not because the women them- 
selves were disposed to see the dynasty fall, 
but the rulers themselves who became effete, 
incompetent, and careless. 

Nor was it altogether and only at the im- 
perial court that this deplorable state of 
affairs existed. In the time of the Han 
Dynasty, that which succeeded T'sin, and 
of which the Chinese were so proud that 
they delighted to call themselves " Men of 
Han,'' an immense army of Hsiung-nu, 
Mongols or Hun Tartars, made their way 
round the western end of the Great Wail, 

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and invaded what is now the province of 
Sze-chuen^ from which they were returning 
with immense booty. Emperor Kao Ti led 
an army in pursuit, but the Mongols turned 
the tables upon him and he was compelled 
to seek shelter in P'ing (probably Ping-liang 
Fu, in Eansuh province), a city of Shansi, 
and the besiegers were on the point of ef- 
fecting an entrance. 

Then Kao Ti, knowing the weakness of 
kings in his part of the world certainly, 
caused a number of life-sized dolls to be 
dressed like the most beautiful of the Chi- 
nese maidens, and these he posted along the 
walls where they could be seen by the enemy. 
Then he sent a secret message to the wife 
of the Hun chief to say that these charming 
maidens were to be presented to her hus- 
band. The artifice was entirely successful ; 
the wife's jealousy was aroused and to pre- 
vent her husband being enamored of the 
charms of those Chinese beauties, she com- 
pelled him to raise the siege and retire to 
his own side of the Great Wall. 

What a pity it is that the whole record 
of the Great Han Dynasty could not be in 
keeping with the beginning thereof. In the 
court of the great sovereigns of the dynasty 
there was splendor and there was doubt- 
less a great deal of dissipation, nevertheless 
the character of Court life was not always 

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conspicuously dissolute in the earlier years 
of their rule. But the downfall of the glo- 
rious dynasty is marked by the appearance 
of three men. who. are known as the three 
greatest traitors in Chinese history. These 
were Wang Mang, Tung-cho, and Ts^ao 

The first was an unscrupulous minister 
of Emperor P'ing Ti (A. D. 1 to 6) at the 
very beginning of the Christian era, it will 
be noted. He was weak, inefficient and his 
court licentious. Wang Mang plotted the 
usurpation of the throne for himself. At 
the New Year's Day reception he appeared 
with the imperial Princes and other court- 
iers to pay his respects to the Emperor, and 
the traitor put poison into his master's cup. 
P'ing Ti was seized with violent paroxysms 
of pain and soon died in great agony. Wang 
Mang feigned grief so skilfully that every- 
body was deceived and he was able to carry 
out his traitorous plans. 

At his suggestion a child only two years 
of age was raised to the throne, and Wang 
Mang was appointed Regent of the baby 
Emperor, Ju Tzu Ying (6 to 9 A. D.). It 
was but a short time until the traitor showed 
his hands, and having control of the army, 
the older princes and loyal followers of the 
House of Han could do nothing, so that 
Wang Mang had his own way completely. 

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The baby Emperor Ju Tzu Ying was per- 
mitted to occupy the throne, nominally, for 
three years and then he was calmly set aside, 
Wang Mang openly assuming the title of 
" New Emperor/' He declared that he had 
had a vision in which Kao Ti, the founder of 
the dynasty, had given consent to his ac- 
cession; this was a common subterfuge in 
China not only then but until quite recent 
times, and it is astonishing how successful 
the ruse often was. 

There followed a period of rebellion and 
trouble, until at last the traitor was de- 
feated in battle and fled. He was pursued, 
however, captured and promptly beheaded; 
his body was cut into a thousand pieces and 
his head exposed in the market place of 
Ch'ang-an, the city where he had tried to 
hide himself. Then the Han Dynasty was 
restored in a sense, although the new em- 
perors, not being in the direct line, that 
particular branch is called thereafter The 
Later or Eastern Han. 

The second of those unsavory characters, 
Tung Oho, was a general who seized the im- 
perial power for himself, dethroned the 
reigning monarch, and placed a boy Prince 
upon the throne; the child was Hsien Ti, 
who reigned from A.D. 190 to 294. The 
opportunity that played into Tung Cho^s 
hands was the confusion that reigned at 

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Court because of an attempt on the part of 
a faction to massacre the imperial eunuchs. 

Hsien Ti being weak, both mentally and 
physically, his Prime Minister, Tung Cho, 
actually ruled the empire. Nominally pro- 
fessing to give his acts an appearance of 
legality by declaring them to be always with 
the consent and approval of the puppet em- 
peror, yet his lying provoked dissatisfaction 
on all sides and at last he was slain by one 
of his own officers. His death brought no 
relief to the country, or peace at Court. 

The third of the notorious traitors, Ts'ao 
Ts'ao appeared before the capital, Ch'ang- 
an, and seized the throne. This act was the 
prelude to the confusion of the period 
known as "The Three Kingdoms.'^ The 
interesting period in Chinese history came to 
an end with the fall of that man who, be- 
cause of his own love of dissipation and the 
dissoluteness of his court, has been given 
the title " Duke -of Pleasure.'^ 

Thus the record of all the dynasties is but 
a repetition of the same story. According 
to the Chinese sages, so long as rulers are 
wise, discreet, and abstemious. Heaven 
prospers them. When they swerve from 
the path of duty, Heaven promptly brings 
forward an usurper and the dynasty is 
changed. Even the glorious T'ang dynasty 
which has always seemed to me to stand for 

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the highest glory of the old Chinese em- 
pire, although it had some wonderful rulers 
in its long list for it commenced to reign in 
618 A. D. and passed away with Liang Chu- 
tien in 923 A. D., op if we include the after 
T'ang, in 936 A. D., yet T'ang came to an 
end in the usurpation of the throne by a 
common adventurer named Chu Wen. He 
displayed no marked ability and the only 
thing which enabled him to grasp the reins 
of government, was the absolute weakness of 
the last legitimate sovereign of the house 
of T'ang, and the terrible confurion which 
existed at Court because of the contending 

The patronage which most of the Sung 
Emperors extended to arts and letters lends 
to their dynasty a semblance of aesthetic 
glory which is attractive. It is indis- 
putably true that the cultured arts throve 
during the time from A. D. 960 to 1279, 
when this dynasty ruled over China. Life 
at Court for the most part was an attractive 
mixture of state affairs and dilettante dab- 
bling with painting, poetry, and pottery. 

Yet again it was the inherent weakness 
of the monarchs and the dissolute Court life 
which brought the downfall of that great 
Chinese dynasty. For had there been com- 
petent rulers, possessing the confidence of 
all their subjects, this dynasty and the suc- 

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ceeding allied one of the Southern Sung 
would probably not have succumbed to the 
invading Mongols, who in 1260 A. D., estab- 
lished the Yuen (commonly known as the 
Mongol) Dynasty. 

It was during the reign of these aliens 
that the Polos visited China and were im- 
pressed by the pomp and splendor of the 
Oriental Capital, Cambaluc, or Peking as 
we know it. They were amazed at the mag- 
nificence which was displayed, and which 
was something they had not dreamed could 
exist Feasts and the dynastic as well as the 
national commemorations were celebrated 
with a prodigality that surpassed the wildest 
imagination of those Venetians, who were 
not altogether unaccustomed to display on 
such occasions. 

There were such conspicuous evidences of 
civilization in the Court and in the adminis- 
tration of affairs, that the strangers were 
led to make comparisons which were just 
as unfavorable to Europe, as changed con- 
ditions three centuries later led the people 
of America and Europe to look upon China 
as being altogether behind the times and ab- 
surdly conservative. 

In addition to the seemingly inevitable 
degeneration of the Chinese rulers, in yield- 
ing to the temptations of license of all kinds, 
there was a special reason for the downfall 

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of the Mongols. All offices within the gift 
of the sovereign, whether purely civil or com- 
bining military duties with those of civil 
administration, were given to Mongols to 
the exclusion of native Chinese. The for- 
mer method of time-honored sanctity, of con- 
ferring rank according to literary qualifi- 
cations was ignored, and the true Chinese 
literati began to complain. Their conten- 
tion for a proper share in these offices was 
supported by sufficient of the people of the 
eighteen provinces to enable Chu Yuen- 
chang to expel the Mongols and establish 
the Ming, " Bright Dynasty.'' 

This was the last truly Chinese House that 
ruled over the people of the Empire. Again, 
however, degeneracy marked the rulers, and 
in 1644 the T'sing, " Pure Dynasty,'' of the 
Manchus was seated upon the throne of the 
Chinese Empire and there remained until 
1912. The vicissitudes of this dynasty 
have formed the subject of so many works 
that it is unnecessary to rehearse the story 
here. There were good and there were bad 
rulers. At times life at the Imperial Court 
was marked by extravagant ostentation 
which was amazing and thoroughly distaste- 
ful to the majority of the Chinese; at other 
times, so we are told, retrenchment and sim- 
plicity were carried to the extreme of parsi- 
mony, which likewise created a very bad 

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impression amongst those who were asso- 
ciated with the government. 

It wonld hardly be fair to say that gradual 
deterioration was a marked characteristic 
of the Manchu dynasty^ for as a matter of 
fact, the very last adult emperor evinced 
ability which would probably have saved his 
House, had he been permitted to live and to 
carry out his plans for reform. Yet it must 
be added that it would have been necessary 
for Kwang Hsfl to surround himself with 
more discreet advisers than some of those 
to whom he was disposed to listen. Unless 
such a course could have been pursued, the 
wreck of the Manchu dynasty was scarcely 
to have been prevented. 

Of the great Empress Dowager, it is right 
to say she showed at times singular ability 
in matters of state; at other times incom- 
prehensible lack of policy and intelligence; 
but of her personal life it is wise to say 
little, because there are most conflicting 
stories told about her in this respect. There 
are at the service of those who wish to study 
the subject of Court life during recent years, 
at least two books which may be specially 
recommended : namely, Princess Der Ling's 
"Two Years in the Forbidden City'^ and 
Dr. Headland's "Court Life in China.'' 
The former gives an account from the in- 
side; the latter gives impressions from the 
outside as well as some esoteric experiences. 

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THESE are the people who are truly the 
Chinese. Whether they were bom 
on the soil they have occupied for certainly 
more than twenty-five centuries, or whether 
they came from the north, the west, or the 
southwest, is now a matter of small impor- 
tance to any but the ethnologist who insists 
upon probing into corners so filled with the 
dust of ages as to be repulsive to the ordi- 
nary reader. 

Tet there is one statement made about 
these Chinese which seems to me to be a 
misapprehension. It relates to what is 
called their oblique eyes. One writer, who 
should be an authority, although some of 
us do not recognize him as such, states that 
the four comers of a pair of eyes, as shown 
in the most ancient pictorial or sculptural 
representation in Europe, may be joined 
by one horizontal straight line; whereas 
straight lines drawn through the eyes of the 
oldest Chinese appropriate hieroglyphic 
cross each other at a sharp angle. 

This is trae only so far as it relates to a 


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picture ; but inasmucli as it seems to imply 
a difference in the angle of the eye sockets, 
in the West and in the East, it is misleading. 
An examination of Chinese skulls shows 
that the eye sockets are set in precisely the 
same way as in the Caucasian skull ; the ap- 
pearance of obliquity is due solely to the 
fact that the inner comer of each upper eye- 
lid is drawn down somewhat. Yet it is 
strange how proud the Chinese seem to be 
of what, in our opinion, constitutes almost 
a deformity, for in all of their graphic arts 
this unusual arrangement of the eyelids is 
actually exaggerated. 

In this country we have seen men wearing 
the pigtail and dressed in petticoats; and 
women wearing trousers, and we have called 
them all Chinese. Well, that is quite as 
correct as for the people of France to call 
every man who si)eaks English, im Anglais. 

But setting aside the difference between 
Chinese, Mongols, Manchus, Tibetans, and 
the men from Dzungaria or Eastern Turkes- 
tan, there are some surprising differences 
to be noted in Chinese who come from neigh- 
boring provinces; while those who come 
from provinces far apart, are as different 
as is the New Englander, whose forbears 
have been in this country for generations, 
from the ranchman of mixed blood on the 
Texan frontier. 

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One does not have to be long in Hongkong 
to note the diflference between a fairly tall, 
strong Swatow chair-coolie and the light 
weight, weak Cantonese. The people from 
the lower Yang-tze will not long be con- 
fused with those from np the valley towards 
the Ichang Gorge, by the visitor who looks 
about him carefully. 

In the matter of language, the difference 
between the people of the different prov- 
inces — and sometimes between those who 
inhabit the same province — is astonishing. 
I ought, no doubt, to use the word " dialect '^ 
instead of " language ^' ; but when you find 
that an uneducated person or even a fairly 
intelligent merchant from Swatow has about 
as much difficulty in making himself under- 
stood in Canton, as would a Kentish farmer 
who crQSsed the Straits of Dover and tried 
to converse with the Normandy peasants in 
France, you are disposed to say that in this 
respect the difference seems to be greater 
than simply that of dialect 

Yet, of course, the language is fundamen- 
tally the same in Kwan-tung province, in 
the extreme southeast, as it is in Shantung, 
in the northeast, or Kansuh, far away in 
the northwest. Words differ in pronun- 
ciation, at first, and this difference increases 
until there result two words, having iden- 

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tical meaning, but possessing not the most 
remote resemblance in sound- 
All this applies to the spoken language. 
In literature there is practically no such 
diflference. Books, the famous Classics, for 
instance, have been printed in what for- 
eigners have called the Mandarin dialect. 
That means simply that the language and 
locutions of literary men at the capital have 
been adopted as the standard for the printed 
language. Every educated man in the 
eighteen provinces understands the Classics 
as he reads them ; and his neighbors who are 
equally fortunate in education, will under- 
stand him as he reads aloud. But the 
locally trained school man of Yunnan would 
be totally incomprehensible to his fellow 
from Chihli. 

Newspapers, likewise, are not necessarily 
intelligible to people of remote districts from 
the place of publication, because localisms 
are quite as common in China as they are 
in any other part of the world. The famous 
"Peking Gazette," that was for centuries 
the only thing in the empire entitled 
to be called a newspaper, was the official 
organ of the Government, and it was read 
by officials, the literati, and educated men 
in all parts of the country. It contained 

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Besides his speech, "that doth bewray 
him," there is something about the physical 
appearance of the people of the eighteen 
provinces, which seems to differentiate them 
from those of the remoter parts of even ad- 
jacent provinces ; while every man in China 
knows at a glance whether the stranger is 
from the east, west, south, or north. The 
way in which the men used to have their 
head shaved and the queue braided; the 
material and cut of their clothes, especially 
the style of their footwear, betrayed the 
visitor from a remote section. 

Amongst the women there were unmis- 
takable differences in the way the hair was 
dressed, as well as in the shsqpe and fashion 
of their clothing. I am speaking now of the 
people of China proper exclusively; in the 
proper place these distinguishing peculiar- 
ities of Manchus, Turkestanese, and all the 
others, will be discussed. 

In occupation, there was a wide difference 
between the people of the various provinces. 
In the silk district, it is imperatively neces- 
sary that the workmen shall become ac- 
customed to the local way of doing things 
by long observation, before he is permitted 
to take upon himself the entire responsi- 
bility of the delicate operations of feeding 
the worms, cleaning the trays in which they 
are fed and allowed to make their cocoons. 

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Then when the time for reeling off the floss 
comes, each locality has its own peculiar 
method. An expert Chinese needs no label 
to teach him whence comes a hank of floss 

The tea pickers of the Fuhkien Province, 
seaport Foochow, do their work in a different 
way from those in the larger districts which 
contribute to the business of Hankow on 
the Yang-tze River; and after the leaves 
have been gathered, dried, fired, and packed, 
he is but a poor Chinese who cannot tell 
after his first sip whence came the tea from 
which the infusion was drawn. 

We think, and quite properly, of rice as 
being the staple article of diet for our Chi- 
nese neighbors, but there are many different 
ways of preparing this vegetable for the 
table. I mean the seemingly simple act of 
boiling the grain, and I think I may almost 
say that each province has its own rule. In 
some it is boiled quickly with the express 
purpose of making it somewhat difficult to 
digest, so that the hard-working coolies and 
laborers may not too quickly assimilate their 
rice and become hungry before the time has 
come for the next meal. In other places it 
is steamed so admirably that while each 
puffy grain is separate, yet they are like 
independent snowflakes. 

This matter of rice cooking recalls to mind 

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the Chinese gourmet Please note that I 
distinguish carefully between the gourmand^ 
who eats voraciously of pretty much any- 
thing that is set before him^ seeming to have 
in mind quantity rather than quality; and 
the gourmet, the lover of good things to eat 
but who nevertheless makes a dainty dis- 
crimination as to what he will eat. 

Because we may have seen a group of 
Chinese around a table, on which there are 
platters or bowls of queer looking stews 
and vegetables, shoveling the rice into their 
mouths from little bowls held in the left 
hand and a pair of chopsticks in the other, 
we are not to assume that all their fellow 
countrymen are satisfied to do the same thing 
with similarly coarse food. Our Chinese 
gourmet has as keen a palate, in his way, as 
has his French congener. Perhaps he likes 
to eat salted earthworms, and that is about 
as repulsive a dish as I know, yet the Chi- 
nese gourmet insists upon having his worms 
prepared in just the right way. 

Our beefsteak and onions may not appeal 
to some of our friends; yet it is not every 
cook who can prepare this dish to suit the 
taste of the fastidious. Our French neigh- 
bors like snails, only the animals must have 
been properly fed and skilfully cooked as 
well as served to appeal to the true French 
gourmet So with our Bussian friends, 

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they like to preface a hearty meal with a 
zakushki, which seems to many of us a meal 
in itself. The preliminary of cold marrow- 
bones, pickled herrings, salted eels, caviare, 
and thirty or forty other cold appetizers, 
serve to stimulate the Muscovite palate, 
while it so satisfies the stranger, unaccus- 
tomed to it, that there is no room for the suc- 
ceeding dinner, a la course t 

Our Chinese gourmet seems to know as 
well, by intuition it almost seems, although 
it is usually with him just as it is with our- 
selves a matter of experience or inquiry, 
where to go for the best birdnest^s soup, and 
which chef can serve sea-slugs in the most 
tempting manner. Is it surprising to be 
told that there is such a thing as the culi- 
nary art in China? Why should it be? 

Now that the Chinese are coming to be 
greater travelers than ever before, because 
of the facility accorded by railways and 
steamers, it is not at all an uncommon thing 
for the people of Kwan-tung who go to 
Chihli, to seek in the national capital, 
Peking, for the restaurant that will cater to 
their peculiar tastes. Just as our own lover 
of terrapin d la Maryland, would not be 
satisfied in New York or Chicago unless he 
knew his honne houche is going to be served 
in the proper way. 

The most elaborate native entertainment 

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I ever attended was the " house- wanning " 
given by the Taoutai of Chowchow fu, when 
he had completed his new yamin (official 
residence) at Swatow. As I was only a lad, 
fresh from home, his lordship asked the con- 
sular representatives of the Great Powers, 
if he might infringe the rule of precedence 
and put me on his left (the post of honor) 
for he had been told I could converse with 
him in Chinese. The consuls gave unani- 
mous consent and the great Mandarin 
treated me to dainty morsels which he 
picked out of the common dish with his own 
chopsticks (without rinsing those useful 
implements in water after they had been in 
his own mouth), and poked them into my 
mouth. But of such details I do not care 
to si)eak. 

Our host was a thorough Chinese gourmet, 
and some of the junior officials attached to 
his Court, told me he had sent to Can- 
ton for a cook and his assistants, and that 
most of the materials for the feast had been 
brought from different places, according as 
the locality was famous for this or that deli- 
cacy. This, I afterwards learned, was not 
at all an unusual thing to do. 

Our Chinese neighbors are as a rule well 
built and symmetrical, and I think that in 
these respects they showed to advantage 
when contrasted with our Japanese neigh- 

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bors, I imagine the difference is partly 
due to the fact that the Chinese have never 
been accustomed to squatting on the floor, 
resting the buttocks on the heels, as the 
Japanese have done for ages, A result of 
this suwariy as it is called in Japan, was to 
check the development of the lower limbs, 
making the Japanese appear to be dispro- 
portionately short-legged, I may remark 
that the tendency to abandon this habit and 
make greater use of chairs, forms at schools, 
etc., is having a beneficial result ; the stature 
of the Japanese is said to have increased an 
inch or more within the past thirty or forty 
years, the period during which the better 
habits of sitting rather than squatting hajs 
become popular. 

We may properly say that the Chinese 
have a yellowish tint, and that, as a rule, 
they rarely show much pink or red color in 
the face. This is not strictly true of chil- 
dren who run about a great deal in the open 
air. Some of the little girls have a dainty 
coloring that makes them very pretty. If 
exposure to the sun has given to some of the 
Chinese in the south a swarthy tint, they 
never approach a black color, and one of the 
most inept, and offensive, words to apply to 
the Chinese is " nigger.'^ 

Chinese women of the upper classes who 
seldom go outside their homes, unless shel- 

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tered from the glare and from the public 
gaze as well, in a curtained or jalousied se- 
dan chair, or protected from the sun's rays 
by an umbrella, are often of a very fair com- 
plexion. As a rule, the yellow tint nearly 
disappears in children bom to mixed par- 
ents, one of whom is a Caucasian. 

We know that the hair on the head of a 
Chinese is coarse and black, at least if it is 
not absolutely jet black it is of such a very 
deep brown tint that it seems to be black; 
and the way the people dress their hair and 
the use of cosmetics by the women tend to 
deepen the color. Of beards and whiskers 
the men have scarcely any, and both sexes 
have very little hair on the body. 

It was the custom, as invariable as an un- 
written law, for the men to shave the face 
completely until they had attained the dig- 
nity of being a grandfather, or had gained 
certain distinctions in the literary class. 
In the former case the grandfather might 
permit his mustaches to grow although these 
were often what our lovers of slang would 
call " a ball game; that is nine on a side." 
In ihe latter case, since the distinction 
rarely came until the man was well on in 
years, a growth of hair on the face was as- 
sumed to indicate an old man, hence in the 
south, such men were called lau chu nanQy 
that is, "old hair men.'' 

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Since the Chinese were accustomed to see- 
ing only black hair and eyes, it was but nat- 
ural that the light or auburn hair and blue 
eyes of many Europeans should seem un- 
canny. In the graphic art of the Chinese 
(as is the case in Japan also) devils are de- 
picted as having red or blue bodies and fiery 
red hair; therefore it was but natural that 
the first blonde Europeans were called ang 
mau kui, " red-haired devils/^ or fan kwei, 
" foreign devils.'^ 

Inasmuch as ancient history teaches us 
that the immigrating Chinese in the re- 
mote past> intermarried with the aboriginal 
peoples whom they found to the south of 
the Mei-ling spur of the great Yun-ling 
range of mountains, while those who did 
not come that far remained more or less 
unmixed in the Great Plain of Central Asia, 
or even in the western part of what is now 
Shansi Province, there is a noticeable dif- 
ference between the mixed population of the 
south, if I may call them so, and the pure 
type ; the latter are the finer looking in every 

The almost total lack of a bridge to the 
nose, and the fact that the eyes seem to be 
so full and nearly level with the forehead as 
to be rather protruding, emphasizes the dif- 
ference between the Chinese and the Cau- 
casian, and added something to the an- 

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tipathy whicli the natives at first felt for 
the unhuman looking beings who had 
sunken blue eyes. 

It is somewhat surprising that there 
should be in the extreme eastern part of 
the great province of Kwan-tung, a group 
of people in Chowchow fu, prefecture, who 
compare favorably in stature and propor- 
tions with the men from north of the Yang- 
tze Eiver. Williams says: "A thousand 
men taken as they come in the streets of 
Canton, would hardly equal in stature and 
weight the same number in Bome or New 
Orleans, while they would, perhaps, exceed 
those, if gathered in Peking; their muscu- 
lar powers, however, would probably be less 
in either Chinese city than in those of 
Europe or America/' 

I should not like to extol very highly the 
beauty of the Chinese women, neveri:heless 
they are not totally devoid of physical 
charms. When the health is good and while 
a girl is young, her face is far from being 
repulsive. One admirable effect of the 
recent willingness to become a part of the 
world and not to be merely in it, has been 
a gradual discontinuance of the abomina- 
ble habit Chinese women followed of shav- 
ing the face right up to the lower eyelids. 
The inevitable effect was to make the skin 
like leather and to stimulate the develop- 

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ment of wrinkles. In one respect our 
Chinese women neighbors are more like 
Europeans than are their sisters in India 
and southwestern Asia. They do not fade 
so soon and become withered, but bear chil- 
dren and retain their vigor almost as do 
the Caucasians. 

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«T7B0M an obscure and uncertain be- 
•T ginning, the word Mongol has gone 
on in increasing significance and spread- 
ing geographically, during more than ten 
centuries, until it has filled the whole earth 
with its presence. From the time when 
men first used it until our day this word 
has been known in three senses especially. 
In the first sense it refers to some small 
groups of hunters and herdsmen living 
north of the great Gobi desert; in the sec- 
ond it denotes certain peoples in Asia and 
Eastern Europe ; in the third and most re- 
cent, a world-wide extension has been given 
it. In this third and the broad sense, the 
word Mongol has been made to include in 
one category all yellow skinned nations, or 
peoples, including those too with a reddish- 
brown, or dark tinge in the yellow, having 
also straight hair, alw^s black, and dark 
eyes of various degrees of intensity. In 
this sense the word Mongol co-ordinates 
vast numbers of people, immense groups of 
men who are like one another in some traits, 
and widely dissimilar in others. It em- 


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braces the Chinese, the Koreans, the Japa- 
nese, the Manchus, the original Mongols 
with their near relatiyes the Tartar, or 
Turkish tribes which hold Central Asia, or 
most of it Moving westward from China 
this term covers the Tibetans and with them 
all the non-Aryan nations and tribes until 
we reach India and Persia." 

When I find that another writer has said 
something that I know to be true, but has 
expressed himself better or more succinctly 
than I can, I feel that I am doing my read- 
ers a favor and paying the more expert au- 
thor a deserved compliment by borrowing 
his words. This is my reason for begin- 
ning this chapter with the first paragraph of 
Jeremiah Curtin's book.* Some historians 
say there are five groups of Mongols who 
have made themselves famous in Europe; 
although I should be disposed to use the 
word "infamous" in describing the Huns 
under their chief Attila, the Bulgars, the 
Magyars, the Turks or Osmanii, and the 
Mongol invaders of Russia. Other author- 
ities say there have been Mongol people in 
Africa from a remote past and that their 
descendants are still to be found there. 
This may be true, but I am inclined to doubt 
the correctness of the assertion that the 
Mamelukes were recruited from the Mon- 

•The Mongols: A Htetory. 

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gols. It has always seemed to me that 
this force was originally made up from 
Christian captives who were compelled to 
serve their Turkish captors as soldiers, and 
afterwards their ranks were recruited from 
Christian families who were living in Turk- 
ish possessions. 

The etymology of the word Mongol is a 
little interesting. During the reign of the 
great T'ang Dynasty of China^ the term 
Mong-ku appears as applied to the people 
north of the Empire^ and in the records of 
the Ei-tan Dynasty which followed the 
T'ang the same people are described by the 
word Mofig-hurli. After the Ki-tans came 
the Golden Ehans, and in their annals the 
Mong-ku are often mentioned. 

As is the case with so many peoples, the 
origin of the family into which the great 
Genghis Khan was born, was miraculous. 
A blue wolf and a gray doe swam across 
a lake — it may be that Baikal is intended 
— and settled near the sources of the river 
Onon. A human son, Batachi, was born 
to them, and then later, after many genera- 
tions, another miracle was wrought. A 
widow, who had had two sons by her hus- 
band, after his death bore yet three more 
sons, although there was no man in the 
yurta save a slave whom her husband had 

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bought of a poor wandering beggar for a leg 
of venison. 

The two sons by the widow's lawful hus- 
band consulted together and said: "Our 
mother has no husband, no brother of our 
father has ever been in this ywrtaj still she 
has had three sons since our father died. 
There is only one man in the house, he has 
lived with us always; is he not their 
father?" The woman having learned 
what the two elder brothers were thinking 
and saying, called them together and gave 
to each one an arrow, telling them to 
break it. This of course each one did eas- 
ily. Then she tied the five arrows together 
and asked each to try to break the bundle; 
this they were unable to do. Then she said : 
" Ye are in doubt as to who is the father 
of my third, fourth and fifth sons. Ye 
wonder, and with reason, for ye know not 
that a golden-hued man makes his way to 
this yurta. He enters through the door by 
which light comes, he enters in through the 
smoke-hole like sunshine. The brightness 
which comes from him fills me when I look 
at hiuL Going off on the rays of the sun 
or the moon he runs like a swift yellow 
dog till he vanishes. Cease talking idly. 
Your three youngest brothers are children 
of Heaven, and no one may liken them to 

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common men. When they are khans ye 
will know this/' It is singular how widely 
prevalent this or a similar myth is. 

We are not here interested in the Mon- 
gols as a whole, but with a very definite 
part of them. The Tartar legend tells ns 
that in the period which corresponds to 
the year 1161 of the Christian era, a woman 
gave birth to a son, who was grasping in 
his fists a lump of dark, clotted blood. 
This event happened at the time when one 
Temujin TJge, a Tartar, was captured; 
therefore the child was given the name Te- 

He later completely subdued the various 
peoples in his immediate neighborhood 
along the upper courses of the Onon River, 
which you will find on any really good map 
of Asia, at about 110^ East Longitude from 
Greenwich, and 48° North Latitude. Only 
a short distance west, among the Chamur 
Mountains or the Kentai Shan, are tbe 
headwaters of the Kerulen Eiver, another 
stream which is intimately connected with 
the early history of the Mongols; and in the 
same mountainous district the Tula and 
Orhon Rivers rise; these last mentioned 
empty into Lake Baikal and thus find their 
way into the Arctic Sea nearly opposite the 
Island of Nova Zembla; while the Onon 
and Kerulen eventually become the great 

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Amur River and thus reach the Pacific 
There, within reach of any one of these 
streams, is the site which all Mongols honor 
as having been the birthplace of Gtenghis 
Khan and where his tomb is planted. 

When Temujin had conquered his way to 
fame, he took that name, Genghis Khan, 
and raised his wonderful standard of nine 
white (yak?) tales, Genghis means 
" Mighty,*' while Khan is, of course, a title 
having the significance of Emperor, and the 
seeming proper name of Genghis was 
adopted to distinguish this man from all the 
other Khans. 

Many interesting legends are told of this 
personage who was to have such a tremen- 
dous influence upon the fortunes of our 
Chinese neighbors, and some of them are 
given here. When the lad, Temujin, was 
in his fifteenth year and it seemed time to 
think of getting a wife for him, his father, 
Yessugai, went into the country from which 
the boy's mother, Hoelun, had been taken 
by capture. In the mountains he met a 
man named Desai-chan, who was of the 
Uigar stock. 

This apparent stranger hailed Yessugai 
by name and asked whither he was going. 
The answer was : " I am going to take my 
son to his mother's brothers in order to se- 
lect a wife for him." Desai-chan ^aid: 

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160 OUR neighbors: the CHINESE 

" Your son hath a comely face and bright 
eyes. Last night I dreamt that a white 
falcon, holding the sun and the moon in its 
talons, flew down to my wrist and perched 
there. Thereupon I exclaimed to some of 
my neighbors who were with me, * We know 
the sun and moon only through our seeing 
them; but now this white falcon has 
brought them both down to me in its talons; 
this must be an omen of greatness.' Just 
at this auspicious moment thou has come, 
O Yessugai ! with thy son ; and thy coming 
explains my dream, it foretells high for- 
tune, undoubtedly. I have a daughter at 
my ywrta, she is yet young and small; but 
do come and look at her.'' 

Then Desai-chan led Yessugai and Temu- 
jin to his camp. Yessugai was greatly 
pleased with the appearance of the girl, who 
truly was a young beauty. She was then 
but ten years old, and even among the Mon- 
gols, whose maidens wed very young, was 
hardly ready to be given in marriage. Yet 
the very next day Yessugai asked Desai- 
chan to allow Bortai, that was the girPs 
name, to become the bride of young Temu- 

Desai-chan's reply was both courteous 
and diplomatic, " If I give her only after 
much importuning, will that indicate a 
larger measure of importance? Or if I 

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ANCHU Woman in Full Dress 

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• JU*- 

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give her to your son in answer to a few 
words, will that show slight esteem? We 
know that a girl is not bom to remain in 
her father^s home forever. I give my con- 
sent to Bortafs becoming Tern jin's wife; 
but I pray thee to leave the lad with me for 
a time/^ 

So Yessugai left Temujin with Desai-chan 
and rode oflf towards his own home, but on 
the way he was persuaded by some Tartars 
to stop for a feast with them. These men 
were his enemies, although they professed 
for the moment to be friendly, because he 
had killed many of their people, Temujin 
TJge amongst the number. Therefore they 
put poison into Yessugai's cup, and although 
he managed to travel for three days and 
reach his home, yet he died before his son 
Temujin could be brought to him. 

Before long, Temujin launched out upon 
that career which eventually made him 
"The Mighty Khan." He passed through 
a stormy youth and early manhood, and 
was often within an inch of death's door; 
but by marvelous escapes, and frequently 
through the assistance of friends whom he 
gained in strange ways, he overcame every 

To those who stood in his way, or whom 
he suspected of opposition he was abso- 
lutely merciless. A brother, a half-brother, 

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162 OUR neighbors: the Chinese 

or any relative or connection who baulked 
his way, was as of little account to him as a 
mangy dog. But to his friends he was by 
no means without willingness to make his 
gratitude something tangible. When he 
had built his great Empire, he richly re- 
warded those who had helped him in the 

When the proper time came for Genghis 
Khan to carry out his plan of invading 
China he found himself, as a matter of 
fact, attacking the famous "Golden Dy- 
nasty," the Kin, which had been driven out 
by the Ki-tans. When the Kin Emperor 
died in November, 1209, his successor sent 
an ambassador to inform Genghis Khan of 
the death and the succession. This ambas- 
sador had the impudence to order the 
Great Khan to receive the message kneel- 
ing; for the envoy claimed that Genghis 
was a vassal, and should comport himself 
in accordance with Chinese etiquette. 

At this piece of audacity Genghis de- 
manded: "Who is this new emperor? '^ 
The reply was, with a display of honorific 
titles which may be imagined, "Prince 
Chong-hei." When Genghis heard the 
name he was simply furious, and turning 
his face towards the south, in which direc- 
tion the new upstart dwelt, he spat upon 
the ground and exclaimed : " I thought that 

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the Son of Heaven must be lofty and un- 
common ; but how is this idiot Chong-hei to 
sit on a throne, and why should I lower 
myself even in his presence, much less to 
his petty ambassador?" 

Preparations for the invasion were speed- 
ily completed and the composition of the 
army indicates most clearly what efficient 
strategists and commissaries those Mongol 
leaders were. The troops were divided in- 
to squads of ten each; ten of these squads 
were formed into one company; ten com- 
panies composed what we may call a regi- 
ment; and ten regiments, that is to say, 
ten thousand warriors, made a brigade. 
The orders of the supreme Ehan were 
given direct to the generals in command of 
brigades; and by them passed to officers of 
lower rank until they reached even to the 
petty squad. 

Each soldier wore armor made of strong 
rawhide and his head was protected by a 
stout helmet of similar material. His weap- 
ons were a lance, a sabre, a bow and 
quiver, while some of them bore, in addi- 
tion, an ax which could be used in battle 
as well as to cut wood as necessity arose. 

Besides the horses supplied for the troops 
there were many extra steeds, because the 
army, after leaving headquarters, had to 
cross a wide stretch of the desert. The in- 

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vaders probably took a route that was 
nearly parallel to the great caravan road 
that has been nsed by the Chinese and Bus* 
sians in passing between Peking and Lake 

After a march of something like twelve 
hundred miles the frontier was reached, 
and here became conspicuous the first of the 
defections which contributed so much to 
the downfall of the Chinese government 
The officer in charge of the guard at the 
Great Wall yielded allegiance to Genghis 
Khan and opened the gates to the invading 
army. It is not necessary here to recapitu- 
late the story of the downfall of the Chinese 
Dynasty and the establishment of the Mon- 

This great country, Mongolia, stretches 
from the west, where it marches with the 
Bussian Central Asia provinces, eastward 
between Siberia and Tibet and China 
proper, until it reaches the Eastern Three 
Provinces, which we know by the name of 
Manchuria. Most of Mongolia is, to say 
the least, unattractive. But from about 
the middle of the northern line towards the 
east and stretching down to the Chinese 
frontier the character of the soil improves, 
and in the extreme eastern section there are 
wide grassy plains which are well suited to 
maintain enormous flocks and herds; while 

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\ANCHU Geisha 

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along the numerous streams there is abun- 
dant arable land. 

Of the Manchupians it is not necessary 
to say very much, because they are, after all, 
merely an offshoot of the great Tartar or 
Mongolian Horde. Their history is an in- 
teresting example of how from a very small 
beginning something of enormous propor- 
tions may develop. We must, however, 
bear in mind that had the Chinese dynasty, 
the Ming, been able to hold the allegiance 
of the hundreds of millions of true Chinese, 
and had there not been contemptible trea- 
son on the part of some of the imperial 
generals, there would not have been the 
same easy victory for the Manchus in gain- 
ing possession of the whole Chinese Empire, 
that there had been for their kinsmen, the 
Mongols, in doing the same thing three cen- 
turies before. 

Manchuria itself is a most valuable part 
of the Chinese Republic. This fact is dem- 
onstrated by the eager desire displayed by 
the Russians in gaining a foothold there, 
and later by the efforts of the Japanese to 
imitate their late rivals in war. In the 
neighborhood of the capital of the Eastern 
Three Provinces, Mukden, there are still to 
be seen the tombs of some of the earliest 
rulers of the Manchus. For the tourist bent 
merely upon sight-seeing and for the student 

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of ethnology; as well as for the commeFcial 
man, there are so many attractive things 
about the portion of our Chinese neighbors 
which inhabit Manchuria, that it is not sur- 
prising so many people have gone there. 

The pure Mongolians and Manchus 
(there are not many of them, to be sure), 
do not show the oblique eyes quite so 
markedly as do the true Chinese, that is, 
the people of the Eighteen Provineea As 
a rule these northern people are rather 
larger and better proportioned than the 
southern Chinese, and in many ways they 
show the good effect of an active, outdoor 
life. The costumes of all these Mongolians 
and Manchurians are entirely different 
from those of their Chinese fellow citizens, 
conspicuously so in the winter, when a 
rigorous climate compels them to wear 
thick, wadded clothing and very often furs. 
A Manchurian woman's way of dressing the 
hair is unmistakable; it sets her off from 
her Chinese sisters most conspicuously; and 
the same thing may be said of the native 
women of Mongolia. 

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'^^ANCHU Married Woman: the 
Headdress Indicates the Fact 

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DR. SVEN HEDIN'S interesting ac- 
counts of his exploration into the cen- 
tral parts of Asia and across the Himalayas, 
give us the most complete account of Tibet 
which is available. I do not wish to belittle 
that explorer's work in any way, but in 
fairness to others I may say that a number 
of British subjects, who have been con- 
nected with the Indian Civil Service, as well 
as many army officers who have been sta- 
tioned in those parts of the British Em- 
pire, have told me that all of the important 
information which Dr. Hedin has imparted 
to the public had been, for some years 
before he undertook his exploration, in the 
archives of the Indian Government. 

Inasmuch as it was taken from the re- 
ports of officials or army officers who, 
strictly speaking, perhaps ought not to have 
been in Tibet at all, this information could 
not be given to the public; and the alle- 
giance of the individuals who had collected 
the material forbade their writing for gen- 
eral publication. Even as it is, we really 
know very little about the Tibetans and 


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probably shall not greatly increase our 
knowledge until the Chinese Bepublie or 
Oovemment has advanced so far along the 
paths that it is cutting out^ parallel to what 
the rest of the world has followed for a 
thousand years or more, as to permit of 
their opening freely every nook and comer 
of this great domain. 

Looking from the south up towards the 
mighty Himalaya Mountains, they appear 
in their greatest grandeur. Those who 
have been able to gaze upon this range from 
the north, say that they seem to lose much 
of their impressiveness because they are 
seen from the elevation of Tibet, " The Roof 
of the World." 

In that country, whose average elevation 
is so great that were it not for its proximity 
to the Torrid Zone, it would be snow cov- 
ered perennially, live some people who are 
in many ways the strangest in the world, 
and certainly the most uncommon and un* 
familiar to all of us of the whole three or 
four hundred millions who make up the en- 
tire population of the Chinese Republic. 

It is undoubtedly correct to put the 
Tibetans into the Mongoloid family of hu- 
man beings, although the distinguishing 
characteristics of this class are rather less 
noticeable in them than in any of the others 
of the Chinese nation. This slight varia- 

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tion is doubtless due to the infiltration of 
an East Indian strain through the Him- 
alayas and around the western end of that 
range. Doubtless, too, some influence has 
been made by the people of southeast Asia, 

It is not recorded in reliable history that 
any one body of human beings has been per- 
mitted to develop itself in a constant phy- 
sical environment, from the " beast stage,'' 
or even the lowest *^ man stage," up to its 
present condition; and the Tibetans are 
probably not the exception which is sup- 
posed to prove the general rule. It is but 
natural to find the Tibetans of rather small 
stature, yet they are said to be generally 
stout and stocky. In such a rigorous cli- 
mate, it could hardly be expected that any 
but the physically fitted children should 

The most remarkable thing about the 
Tibetans is their marriage custom. We 
know well what monogamy is, the union in 
marriage of one man and one woman, and 
in our own experience, as an inheritance 
from our European ancestors, what is 
called the " father's right," that is the tra- 
cing of ancestors back through the father's 
line. We know, also, from biblical reading 
and from knowledge of customs in certain 
lands of polygamy; that is a plurality of 
wives, sometimes all of equal rank although 

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more frequently one is the superior and the 
rest are subordinate. We know, too, of 
concubinage, sometimes without disgrace, 
yet frequently otherwise. 

But in Tibet all these conditions are re- 
versed and the plurality in marriage is of 
the men, the single one being the wife. 
This extraordinary condition comes about 
not altogether unnaturally, when we stop 
and consider the circumstances in which it 
has developed. In all the 463,200 square 
miles of Tibet, there are but very few acres 
of arable land. A farmer, as the word 
means to us, is simply unknown. The cul- 
tivated land is all in little patches which 
we should hardly dignify by the name of 

What fields there are lie along the foot 
of the mountains in some spot where the 
patch may be protected from the torrents 
pouring down the mountainside, and from 
the overflow of the stream which rushes 
along at the bottom of the mountain valley. 
A tremendous amount of labor is repre- 
sented in one of those tiny patches ; the lower 
portion is defended against the stream by 
a high wall built of stone; and it must be 
tall enough to be above the highest flood 
level. But some water for the crop of 
wheat, or beans, or whatever it may be, is 
necessary, and a considerable measure of 

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engineering skill is displayed in conduct- 
ing an irrigating stream into the field 
without permitting the rush of water to 
be a menace. 

A glance at the map will show how ex- 
ceedingly limited must be the area of cul- 
tivable land in Tibet. Now suppose a man 
has one such field, or possibly two or three 
of these tiny patches, just enough land to 
supply the wants of one family; and sup- 
pose, further, that the man has three sons 
— by no means an unusual number in Tibet. 
When the father dies, if the land is divided 
amongst the three sons and each takes unto 
himself a wife and rears a family, there will 
be three households to starve. 

It is impossible to divide the landed es- 
tate and the Tibetans have solved a difficult 
problem by adopting polyandry: that was 
inevitable. " In highly developed societies, 
polygamy (including concubinage) sug- 
gests concentrated wealth and privilege. 
Monogamy is democratic ; it suggests divided 
property and privilege. Polyandry sug- 
gests poverty and indivisibility of prop- 
erty.'' The Tibetans are loath to move 
away from the ancestral home; and in the 
case of the three brothers which has been 
assumed, either two must do that or they 
must give up the privileges and responsibili- 
ties of a monogamous marriage. 

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Doubtless experience in lotig past times 
taught their ancestors that three families 
in one home invariably lead to all manner 
of complications and almost inevitably to 
crimes, such as infanticide, as well as dis- 
ease, and some things morally worse that 
need not be discussed here. ^^ Amongst the 
Tibetans, the property, as an indivisible 
whole, goes to the eldest son, who is pro- 
vided with a wife ; but that wife becomes also 
the legal spouse of the younger brothers. 
The children of this woman are the objects 
of a common affection, and when one of her 
sons shall have grown to full manhood, and 
shall have married a wife chosen by his 
parents, he in turn shall come into a pri- 
macy of power over the patrimony, his 
elders reserving just enough to prolong 
their habitual comfort — not enough to 
prevent the establishment of a new genera- 
tion. And thus, indefinitely, the cycle re- 
peats itself; not less regularly — not less 
blindly, obeying nature's demand for the 
new individuals, than elsewhere in more 
favored lands, by other forms/' * 

Bepulsive as is this polyandry to our 
every idea of what married life and the 
creation of a home should naturally be, yet 
if one tries earnestly to put himself into 
the position of the Tibetans and knows the 

♦Crosby, Oscar Terry, Tibet and Turkestan. 

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starved conditions of their life in its com- 
mon aspects, it has to be admitted that they 
have arrived at a solution of a problem 
which is not altogether to be condemned. 

Yet there is another phase of the Tibetan 
married life which is inexcusably repulsive, 
for it unites polyandry and polygamy in 
the most shameless manner. If some great 
good fortune should come to the family, so 
that the joint income permits, the eldest 
brother may take a second or even a third 
wife. It may happen, too, that a second 
wife is introduced, even when the family 
property has not been increased at all ; this 
will sometimes occur when the first wife has 
no children. For the continuance of the 
family line is deemed of almost as great im- 
portance among the Tibetans as it is with 
the Chinese, although the former are not 
in any way inspired with the Confucian 
ideas of the importance of ancestral wor- 
ship. These plural wives are still common 
to all the brothers, and for some almost in- 
explicable reason, the increase of popula- 
tion is less in Tibet than in countries where 
monogamy or polygamy is the rule. 

Before leaving the subject with which 
women are so intimately connected, it 
seems well to state that the Tibetans of the 
fair sex are by no means without title to 
that adjective. They are reported as being 

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of good proportions, graceful build, and 
comely features. Their costume is a simple 
one, even if they display a fondness for 
bright-hued materials. Where frequent 
contact with the Chinese on one side or the 
peoples of India on the other is noticeable, 
there will, too, be noted a disposition to 
imitate the dress of the strangers. This 
remark applies to the men as well as to 
the women, for in eastern Tibet there are 
natives to be seen who have adopted the 
Chinese queue; but whether this was a 
matter of policy or merely a desire to be 
ultra fashionable, I cannot say. 

In certain parts of Tibet a great many 
turquoises are found. Some are of good 
size and great beauty; but as a rule they 
are small and not costly; therefore the 
women, even those who seem to be of such 
poor classes as hardly to be able to afford 
this extravagance, deck their hair with as 
many of these precious stones as they can 

The dwellings of the Tibetans vary from 
a hovel to a fairly large, rather imposing 
edifice two stories in height; but all are 
solidly built, as must be the case in a coun- 
try where the winter's snows are deep and 
lie long. It must be a curious sight to see 
from nearly every dwelling, floating a flag 
which is not in any way a national emblem 

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or ensign, but simply a popular way of keep- 
ing the gods constantly informed of the in- 
mates of the home desiring to pray to them ; 
for the flag bears a prayer written so 
closely as to cover the entire surface. The 
petition, therefore, is measured by the size 
of the flag. 

In Tibet the curious "prayer-wheel" is 
very common. This is a wheel on the felly 
of which are pasted small bits of paper hav- 
ing a prayer written on them: one whirl 
of the wheel is sufficient to inform the gods 
that the person has offered just that num- 
ber of petitions. 

The monasteries of Tibet are still most 
imposing-looking structures. They are usu- 
ally built on the side of a steep hill or 
mountain, so that the lower side will tower 
up to many stories, while the upper is only 
two or three. The most celebrated of the 
Lhasa monasteries has been reproduced in 
facsimile by the Mongolians at Jehol 
(Cheng-te) in the province of Chihli, north- 
east of Peking. 

This remark naturally draws attention to 
the religion of the Tibetans, and it is of 
somewhat peculiar interest because it is the 
direct or indirect power of the religionists 
which has tended as much as anything else 
to keep Tibet a closed country against the 
student and traveler. The Tibetan Bud- 

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dhist priests maintain stontlj that in their 
country has been preserved the only pure 
Buddhism that now exists. They declare 
that what is taught in Ceylon even is so 
far from the teachings of the Buddha him- 
self as to be unrecognizable. 

This claim is utterly false, for the doc- 
trines, already much corrupted, which were 
carried into Tibet a thousand years after 
Gautama's death, have been still further 
corrupted. Competent students of com- 
parative religion find that in Tibet the 
original impersonal generalization of the 
Buddha have been almost smothered by a 
mass of alien beliefs in no way connected 
with ideal Buddhism. Moral qualities 
have grown to be gods who are given their 
place in the overcrowded pantheon; and so 
called "Emanations'' from the original 
founder or his special disciples, have been 
individualized, and then those persons 

The Bomish doctrine of the Immaculate 
Conception has been applied to make the 
mother of Prince Siddartha equal, in the 
matter of her conception, with that which 
the strictest Bomanists claim for the Virgin 
Mary; and Queen Maya is declared by 
some of the Tibetans to have been herself 
of Virgin birth. 

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It is certain that what little is left of 
Buddhism in India is radically different 
from what the earliest literature teaches; 
while Buddhism in China has widely di- 
verged from the Master's teachings; and 
that of Japan is scarcely recognizable as 
real Buddhism. The Buddhists of Tibet 
are now generally called Lamaists, the 
strictest being loyal adherents of the Dalai 
Lama officially, for personally that individ- 
ual has often conducted himself in such a 
way as to forfeit the respect of his coun- 

The other religious body of real impor- 
tance in Tibet is one that is called Pon-bo. 
This last mentioned combines in a strange 
way the superstitions of an old Nature- 
worship with some of the lower, grosser ele- 
ments of Lamaism. Mr. Crosby* not at all 
ineptly says that the relation of the two 
bodies is similar to that which might have 
been seen in Europe as late as the sixth 
century after Christ, when there still 
existed communities professing the ancient 
paganism, while enthroned Christianity had 
not been able to free itself from a heritage 
of magic, witchcraft, and devil cult, and had 
shifted the worship of the Finite from demi- 
gods to saints. But in Europe at that time, 

•Op, oit. 

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as in Tibet now, there were seen a very 
few who drank such pure water as the 
higher creed may oflEer to the most en- 

The eastern part of Tibet is still closed 
to the ordinary traveler, so that access to 
the country, east of about the longitude of 
Lhasa, from the north, east, or south, is 
practically impossible. It is not difficult 
for almost any one who chooses to do so to 
get into the extreme western part of the 
country. In each village of that section 
there is an inn, or some proper place for 
strangers to lodge, and it is quite easy to 
procure an abundant supply of food. Not 
always meats, but coarse bread, milk, 
chickens, and eggs are plentiful, and there 
is said to be no displeasing attempt to 
practise extortion. 

The people are inquisitive and certainly 
would like to see how the stranger, espe- 
cially if he is a European, conducts himself; 
but their curiosity rarely becomes offensive. 
Although professedly Buddhists or Mahom- 
etans, and one of course expects such peo- 
ple to be abstemious, the natives make a 
pleasing, thirst-quenching drink which is 
something like both wine and beer. All 
things considered, when the government of 
the Chinese Republic has become so firmly 

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established as to rule and govern in all 
parts of its domain, there will be an oppor- 
tunity for the curious traveler to derive 
much satisfaction from a visit to this group 
of our Chinese neighbors. 

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IT will be remembered that Mahometanism 
is considered as beginning in the year 
622 of the Christian era. Furthermore it is 
generally said that the teachers of this re- 
ligion have never been remarkably conspic- 
uous for their efforts to secure converts by 
sending missionaries into regions of the 
earth far away from the center of their own 
faithy Mecca. Yet in the Chinese Republic 
there are many Mahometans. This is not 
at all surprising when we think of the ex- 
treme western section of the republic, for 
in those districts the people came into direct 
association with the advancing Moslems, 
and indeed the colonies of those who profess 
that faith are the most important element 
in the populations of Dzungaria, Hi, and 
Chinese Turkestan. 

In such a part of the Chinese Republic 
as Eastern Mongolia, thousands of miles 
from the frontier along which the Mahome- 
tans have been living in numbers for nearly 
fourteen hundred years, there are fol- 
lowers of the Prophet. At the cities of T'a 
Tzu Kou and Hata, as well as throughout 


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the whole adjacent country, there is a con- 
siderable Moslem population, and in the 
former city the mosque is a handsome 
building. At least its gateway is an impos- 
ing structure, even if it- does not bear 
distinguishing marks to denote the faith of 
those who worship therein. For a Moslem 
temple that gateway is somewhat too 
highly ornamented ; although the interior is 
said to be very quiet and plain. 

One Christian missionary who made a 
trip in eastern Mongolia a few years ago, 
says that the simplicity and apparent rever- 
ence associated with Mahometan mosques, 
is especially welcomed in a land like China, 
where most things, in any way connected 
with religion, are loud and garish, and even 
the temples at times' are the opposite of 

There is one conspicuous trait [which 
marks pleasantly the Mahometan of far 
eastern China from their fellows in the re- 
mote west. It is that the priests in charge 
of the mosques show themselves quite 
friendly towards the visitor from Europe, 
They claim a certain relationship on the 
ground of religion, because their faith, like 
our own, came into China from the west. 

This claim of fellowship extends to more 
prosaic or practical matters than religion, 

* Headley, John, Tramps in Dark Mongolia. 

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182 ouB neighbors: the chinesb 

for wherever there is a choice at a remote 
city or town of eastern Mongolia, between 
an inn kept by a Buddhist Chinese, or 
one whose landlord is a Mahometan, the 
stranger will do well to accept hospitality 
from the latter, for as a rule the accommoda- 
tions are cleaner, the fare better, and more 
to his taste, and the welcome more cordial. 

Just here an amusing story of how the 
Mahometans look at their political affilia- 
tions may be told : I borrow the substance 
of it from the Rev. Mr. Headley.* 

A Chinese whose name was Wang Fu 
Ma, who had gone into eastern Mongolia 
from the province of Shantung, and quite 
evidently he was a man of the adventurer 
class, had been employed by the Russians 
during the late war with Japan, 1904-5. 
His services had been so highly appreciated 
that he was reputed to have received from 
the Russian government a commission as 
major in their regular army. 

It was Wang's duty to help procure sup- 
plies for the Russian commissariat, and 
therefore he made frequent visits to K'u Lu 
Kou for the purpose of buying animals and 
produce. On one of his trips he took into 
partnership a Mahometan townsman who 
likewise bore the family name of Wang. 
They bought three thousand head of cattle 

*0p, cit. 

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and made them ready for the march to Muk- 
den. The Mahometan, having concluded a 
profitable deal as middleman for the Rus- 
sians, then thought to make another hon- 
est (?) penny out of their enemies, and 
surreptitiously sent a message to a notori- 
ous brigand chief, Chin Shou Shon, who was 
in the pay of the Japanese. The result of 
course was an attack upon the Russian con- 
voy; the death of Major Wang Fu Ma and 
the decapitation of the civilian Wang, came 
as incidents. 

Just when Islamism made its way as 
a preached religion into China is not easy 
to determine. Not only would the caravan 
trade along routes leading westward across 
the continent, tend to bring the Chinese and 
Mahometans into intercourse, vrith the in- 
evitable result that the Moslem priests 
would try to spread a knowledge of their 
faith, but the sea-trade between the ports 
of southern China and those of the Arabian 
Gulf or even still farther west, would like- 
wise promote such intermingling. 

It is certain that in early times the Hwui- 
hwui Kiao, as the Chinese called the Mos- 
lems, the followers of the Prophet, were 
attracted to China. In the time of the 
T^ang Dynasty (618 to 907 A. D.) there 
were Mahometan priests at Canton and 
Hangchau. They built mosques, they 

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opened schools and printed some books, and 
they encouraged the Chinese to make pil- 
grimages to Mecca. This last mentioned 
attempt at proselytizing appealed mightily 
to the Chinese, who, especially along the 
coast, have always been passionately fond 
of travel and of going over seas whenever 
they could make excuse for doing so. 

There is one thing about Islamism which 
has seemed to be a sufficient reason for its 
not meeting with much favor amongst the 
Chinese, and that is the rigid rule which 
forbade translation of the Koran. This 
would tend, of course, to keep the sacred 
book out of the hands of the literati and 
educated classes, who were not content to 
receive instruction solely from the preach- 
ing of the Moslem missionaries, and their 
expounding by word of mouth, the tenets of 
their religion. Still, as has been said, the 
number of Mahometans in the Chinese Be- 
public is so great that they are given the 
honor of having one stripe in the new flag 
stand for them. 

There are even now mosques in many 
of the cities of China proper, as well as 
in Mongolia and Manchuria. Before the 
downfall of the Manchus there was a tablet 
in each mosque which bore an ascription 
of reverence to the Emperor, while the name 
of the Prophet was placed behind that of 

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his imperial majesty; wliat will be done 
now that the president of the Republic is 
to be considered as having no claim to di- 
vine right, and no family connection with 
the gods in Heaven, remains to be seen; 
probably the Prophet's name will be given 
sole prominence. 

There are of course no idols or any 
images in the mosques; and none of the 
tablets that are so sacred to Buddhists, 
Taoists, and Conf ucianists ; but there are 
plenty of scrolls suspended along the walls, 
and these bear, in Arabic, references to the 
doctrines. These scrolls are unintelligible 
to even the educated among the worship- 
ers, for Arabic is a language which the 
Chinese learn only with the greatest diffi- 
culty. Although affirming that they wor- 
ship the true God by the name of Chu^ or 
Lord, yet it is more than doubtful if the 
Mahometans ever did anything appreciable 
to elevate the Chinese in any way, or that 
the religion has ever benefited the country. 

But the greatest interest which the Ma- 
hometans in China possess for us is their 
rebellions. The word " rebellion '^ is a com- 
mon one in Chinese history, and it brings 
to the mind many scenes of bloodshed and 
destruction, on scales that fill us with hor- 

The establishing of Chinese rule in those 

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186 OUR neighbors: the Chinese 

parts of the former empire, which must be 
distinguished by the names Dsnngaria, Ili, 
KobdOy Eastern Turkestan, etc., was accom- 
plished so long ago that anything more 
than this brief allusion is unnecessary, al- 
though it has to be said that it was not 
effected in a quiet way without the shed- 
ding of much blood. 

After the Chinese had fixed themselves 
firmly as rulers, peace — at least of a kind 
— ensued for centuries. Indeed, it was not 
until after the middle of the nineteenth 
century that some of the Mahometan sub- 
jects of the Chinese Emperor broke out into 
open revolt, which threatened for a time 
the very foundations of the empire. It is 
not intended to suggest that always were 
those subjects entirely satisfied with the 
rule of the mandarins; for often the over- 
bearing oppression of these administrative 
officials was resented; yet I imagine that 
the officials knew only too well their own 
guilt, and succeeded in placating their re- 
bellious subjects without calling upon the 
Central Government for assistance, or let- 
ting the people carry their complaints to 
the throne. 

But while the Central Oovemment was 
worried almost to distraction by the fa- 
mous Taeping Bebellion, which began in 
1850 and was finally suppressed in 1863, 

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and then only through the effort of " Chi- 
nese'' Gordon, the British officer who was 
loaned to the Chinese Government for the 
express purpose, rebellions of the Mahome- 
tan subjects broke out almost simultaneous- 
ly in the southwest province of Yunnan 
and in the two provinces of Shensi and 
Kansuh, in the far northwest. 

With regard to the first mentioned, it 
was the culmination of an unsuccessful ef- 
fort by the Mahometan population to in- 
duce the Central Government to punish the 
unscrupulous mandarins who committed 
the gravest crimes, and praying the em- 
peror to send a just and honest man to rule 
over them. Perhaps the Court intention- 
ally paid no attention to these appeals, 
although probably the greater rebellion ob- 
scured the less; at any rate nothing was 
done to satisfy the Mahometans and the 
resulting rebellion in Yunnan, as well as 
that in the northwest, cost hundreds of 
thousands of lives and large sums of money. 

In 1873 a similar uprising of the Mahom- 
etans in the northwest was finally sup- 
pressed. We know that the expense to the 
Central Government which this entailed 
was very great and that the loss of life was 
enormous, because during active hostilities 
neither side gave quarter; but we shall 
never know the exact extent of the rebellion, 

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nor its precise cost in men and money. 

The Mahometan rebellion in East Tur- 
kestan, abont 1870, was serions in itself, 
but it was most important to the Chinese 
because of the share which Bnssia had in 
its suppression, and of the complications 
that followed. 

Of Turkestan as a whole, we get our first 
glimpse somewhere about 200 B. C. The 
country was evidently a fertile one, for it 
aroused the envy of some Yue-che, of the 
Mongolian or Tartar race, who poured 
in from the northeast. Later, rather by 
peaceful crowding than by armed conquest, 
these intruders were replaced by Moslems, 
so that now the major part of all the ex- 
treme west of the Chinese Republic is popu- 
lated by followers of the Prophet, although 
doubtless there may be many of those Tar- 
tars who have accepted Islamism. 

The influence of climate in that region 
has been tremendous, the drying up of what 
must have been at one time fairly fertile 
regions is indicated clearly by the discover- 
ies of archaeologists, so that the combina- 
tion of cruel Nature and yet more cruel 
Man, has converted most of the western 
possessions into what is little better than a 
desert. The people themselves were like- 
wise affected both in their physical develop- 
ment and their habits of life, as well as in 

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the nature of their disposition. At times 
they are hospitable and kind, at other times 
they are hostile and treacherous, so that 
traveling in that region is always a pre- 
carious matter. 

Dzungaria^ where are many of the 
Mahometans of China, was formerly a 
Mongolian kingdom of considerable im- 
portance. It attained its extreme height, 
politically and socially, in the latter part 
of the seventeenth century under the leader- 
ship of Bushtu Khan, known also as Eal- 
dan. The former kingdom was long ago 
divided into Eastern Turkestan, belonging 
to China, and Russian Turkestan. Its 
name came from the Dsongars or Songars, 
who were so-called because they formed the 
left wing of the Mongolian army; dson 
meaning " left '' and gar meaning " hand.^' 
Properly speaking, the portion belonging 
to China should be called T'ien Shan-pei-lu, 
that being the official name of the province, 
which probably conveys the idea of "The 
Mountains that reach up to Heaven." 

The population of Eastern Turkestan is 
exceedingly mixed, as would naturally be 
expected. There are some Aryans, many 
people belonging to the Ural-Altaic stock, 
which connotes the people of the high cen- 
tral Asian region, Dzungars, and others. 
The agriculturalists, both farmers and or- 

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190 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

chardistSy are nearly all of Turkish stock, 
yet they too are much mixed with Aryan 
blood. In the towns the people are prac- 
tically all of Turkish blood, and the lan- 
guage universally spoken is Jogatai Turk- 
ish, a patois which is astonishingly i>opular 
throughout the whole region west and south 
of the great desert of Gobi 

Because so much of Eastern Turkestan 
is desert, agriculture is of very small im- 
portance, being confined to the oases at the 
foot of the mountaina However, if the 
crops are small in their totals, excellent 
grains of various kinds are grown, besides 
cotton, tobacco, opium, etc. Some of the 
oases are famous for their orchards which 
provide fruits of many kinds, all having a 
most remarkable reputation for size and 
delicacy of flavor. 

The Chinese officials, under the former 
administration, were notoriously indiflferent 
towards the material development of the 
country they were sent to govern, and al- 
though they must have known that wonders 
could be accomplished in the oases and 
their surrounding country if irrigation were 
provided, they seemed to have given next to 
no attention to this important matter. 
Nevertheless the people themselves have 
done much in this way and with admirable 
results. It is to be hoped, and it is believed, 

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that the new government of the Chinese Re- 
public will give the needed assistance in 
trying to convert at least a portion of this 
desert region into arable land, and make 
the Mahometan population a factor of 
some importance in the great schemes of 
industrial and commercial development 
which the enthusiastic progressives of China 
have promised themselves. 

The people of some of those oases already 
bear an excellent reputation for admirable 
workmanship in certain specialties. Kho- 
tan furnishes silks, white carpets, felt 
goods, and many kindred articles which are 
greatly sought after, not only by the peo- 
ple of the surrounding countries, but also 
some of them find their way abroad. The 
leather goods, especially saddlery of Eucha 
and Eara-shahr have a well-deserved repu- 
tation for excellence and beauty ; and there 
are a number of other towns which are 
more or less specialized as to their crea- 
tions. Under wise administration, and 
with relief from the official rapacity of the 
past, there is no reason why all of the in- 
dustries should not be raised from practi- 
cally insignificance to volumes of impor- 

Very attractive suggestions as to possi- 
bilities in industrial art, are to be found in 
the following extract from the last edition 

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of the Encyclopedia Britannica, based upon 
Dr. Sven Hedin's reports : " In the desert 
not far from the town of Khotan, in a lo- 
cality known as Borasan, objects in terra- 
eotta, bronze images of Buddha, engraved 
gemSy coins and Mss. [were found] ; the 
objects which display artistic skill, give in- 
dications of having been wrought by crafts- 
men who labored to reproduce Graeco- 
Indian ideals in the service of the cult of 
Buddha, and consequently date presumably 
from the third century B. O., when the suc- 
cessors of Alexander the Great were found- 
ing their kingdoms in Persia," etc. 

But it is not necessary to infer that the 
skill of those craftsmen has absolutely dis- 
apj)eared in their remote descendants, more 
than two thousand years later. Another 
writer, whose antiquarian researches have 
given assurance of a degree of culture in 
this apparently hopeless region, is Dr. M. 
A. Stein. He found traces of a Chinese 
wall, with watch-towers and gaard-stations, 
that must have been of considerable length. 
There were evidences of settlement back to 
the second century of our era, and Dr. 
Stein found a large number of documents 
and examples of early Chinese art. The 
interesting question then asserts itself: 
Was the influx of Mahometans the cause 
of the disappearance of that culture; or 

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WBB it pnrely a result of physical degrada- 
tion both of soil and inhabitants? If the 
former, there would seem to be an admir- 
able opportunity for the Chinese Republic 
to re-educate the Mahometans of these 
Western provinces so that conditions of two 
thousand years ago may be revived to the 
great advantage of the New Bepublic. 

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IT has already been indicated that the 
peoples of southeast Europe, long be- 
fore the commencement of the Christian 
era, knew something of a land in the re- 
moter parts of Asia which they were accus- 
tomed to call Beres. Whether it was 
through myth or something based upon geo- 
graphical knowledge that this name came 
to have rather a wide horizon, or because of 
the skill which the people of that distant 
country early displayed in rearing silk- 
worms and in manufacturing silk clothes, 
hardly calls for careful consideration here. 
There is abundant evidence that at the 
very beginning of the Christian era, and 
probably before that time, the Greek and 
Roman merchants need not have gone all 
the way to China proper to obtain these 
coveted materials, for it has been shown in 
the last chapter that almost certainly these 
could have been had in Turkestan, before 
entering the dreary deserts which lay be- 
tween that section of the former Chinese 
Empire and the fertile valleys of the east- 


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era part thereof where the mulberry tree 
grew in great numbers and silk goods were 

An amusing example of the proneness of 
too many writers for jumping to a conelu- 
sion^ because they are deceived by some 
trifling linguistic resemblance or state- 
ment which seems to them to be suggestive, 
is found in the commentaries upon the writ- 
ings of one of the Greek-Latin historians, 
Ammianus-Marcellinus (320 to 390 A.D.), 
who gives a description of the land of Seres 
and of its people. He seems to allude to 
the famous Great Wall which was com- 
menced by Emperor T'sin Chih in 214 B. C. 
and finished in 204 B, C. 

Of course it was not absolutely impos- 
sible for this stupendous undertaking to 
have been known in Europe at the time 
when this historian wrote, although it is 
safe to say it was quite improbable that 
anybody could have carried the news across 
the continent of Asia to the Europeans; 
and equally improbable that any traveler 
from Europe should have wandered so far 
into the remote east. Yet Christian Las- 
sen, a German Orientalist, born 1800, died 
1876, and Joseph Toussaint Belnaub, a 
French Orientalist, bom 1795, died 1867, 
both seemed to have been curiously deceived 
by Ammianus' allusion, and to have taken 

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it for granted that he did refer to the great 
barrier intended to keep the Tartars out 
of the Middle Kingdom. 

As a simple matter of fact, Ammianus 
was manifestly giving a little touch of color 
to the dry statement of Ptolemy, and had in 
his mind nothing more than the mountains 
which were said to separate Seres from the 
western world. Ptolemy plainly indicates 
that the country of Serice extends south 
westward to the region of the Pamirs, and 
no doubt it did reach quite that far in the 
time of the famous Egyptian astronomer, 
mathematician, and geographer, who wrote 
during the interval from 125 to 135 A. D. 

In the nineteenth century the Chinese 
Government certainly did assert and main- 
tain its rights to territory beyond the 

" If we fuse into one, the ancient notices 
of the Seres and their country, overlooking 
anomalous statements and manifest fables, 
the result will be somewhat as follows: 
* The region of the Seres is a vast and popu- 
lous country, touching on the east the ocean 
and the limits of the habitable world, and 
extending west to Imaus and the confines 
of Bactria. The people are civilized, mild, 
just, and frugal, eschewing collisions with 
their neighbors, and even shy of close inter- 
course, but not adverse to dispose of their 

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own products, of which raw silk is the 
staple, but which included also silk-stuffs, 
fine furs, and iron of remarkable quality.' 
This is manifestly a definition of the Chi- 
nese." * 

But then on the other hand, it is clearly 
proved that the Chinese had a very correct 
knowledge of that part of Europe which 
was considered then to be civilized, at the 
commencement of the Christian era. In 
some of the Chinese Classics there is men- 
tion of the Empire of Rome by the name of 
Ta-tsing, "Great Nation," and a surpris- 
ingly high tribute is paid to the intelligence, 
probity, and courtesy of the Romans ; while 
their attainments in arts and industry are 
spoken of in such a way as almost to lead 
us to suspect the Chinese were envious of 
the achievement of those people in the re- 
mote west. 

It must be remembered that in those times 
the Chinese had not assumed that air of 
superiority which made them so objection- 
able fifteen hundred years later. They 
would not have thought at that time of 
speaking of strangers, who displayed the 
skill and material progress of the Greeks 
and Romans, as " Outer Barbarians " or 
" Foreign Devils." Yet even this slight 
knowledge of each other, that is Chinese 

♦ Sir Henry Yule, in Enc. Brit 

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198 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

and EnropeanSy does not really satisfy the 
meaning of "know'' as the word is used 
in the title to this chapter. 

Nor can we get much satisfaction from the 
myths and legends that in the earliest years 
of the first century after Christ, there were 
missionaries of the new faith who made 
their way into the Land of Sinim. I have 
found much that is interesting and indeed 
quite probable in the narrative of two Arab 
merchants who either made their way over- 
land into some part of the Chinese Empire 
of the ninth century, or came into commer- 
cial relations with Chinese caravans; 
although possibly they may have gone by 
sea to the coast of China. But their nar- 
rative is not satisfactory. 

The name Cathay comes nearest to af- 
fording a satisfactory idea of what the Chi- 
nese were a long time ago. It is derived 
from the Eitan Tartars of the Liaotung 
peninsula and its hinterland. Those peo- 
ple assisted in the overthrow of the subor- 
dinate T'ang or "After T'ang'' dynasty. 
They put a monarch on the throne of China 
and then compelled him to give them a heavy 
subsidy. They exacted the cession of six- 
teen cities in the now metropolitan province 
of Chihli, and an annual tribute of three 
hundred thousand pieces of silk. This dis- 
graceful dynasty, if such it may be called for 

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many of the Chinese historians deliberately 
ignore it, lasted from 936 to 947 A. D., and 
it is reckoned, by the few recorders who do 
not cut it out of the list altogether, as the 
meanest and most contemptible House that 
ever presumed to rule the peoples of the 
Middle Kingdom. But for all their base- 
ness, the Kitans gave the world a word 
which, in its original form of Kitai, is still 
used in Russia to designate China, and is 
similarly employed by most of the natives 
of Central Asia. 

If Cathay was at all known to medieval 
Europe, it may be only as an almost myth- 
ical country, the name long ago ceased to 
be used as a geographical expression, but 
it is even now sometimes employed in poetic 
or semi-poetic description. It will proba- 
bly always be associated in our minds with 
the conquests of the great Genghis Ehan 
and his successors, who for a time appar- 
ently threatened to wipe out Christianity 
and absorb all Christians into the Mongol or 
Tartar Empire. 

Tet, for how strange to our feeble human 
intelligence seems sometimes the way of 
Providence, "Tis worthy of grateful re- 
membrance of all Christian people that 
just at the time when God sent forth into 
the western parts of the world the Tartars 
to slay and be slain. He also sent into the 

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200 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

east His faithful and beloved servants, 
Dominic and Francis, to enlighten, instruct, 
and build up the Faith/' This is the state- 
ment of a later missionary friar, Bicold of 
Monte Croce. 

We owe much to the two mendicant or- 
ders, Dominican and Franciscan; all that 
we know of Asia during the middle ages of 
Europe, Our debt is especially great to 
the latter order for information about 
Cathay and the Cathayans. Tet it was not 
through them that we really heard for the 
first time something from Cathay itself. 

We may properly say that it was through 
the members of the Polo family of Venice 
that the Chinese came to be known to the 
rest of the world. This statement does 
not mean that the Polos were the only Eu- 
ropeans to visit China (or Cathay, if that 
word is preferred), nor does it absolutely 
preclude the possibility that some Chinese 
visited Europe during the Middle Ages or 
even before that time. There is evidence to 
the contrary; certainly as to the visits of 
Europeans to remotest Asia as the phrase 
then connoted, and probably so as to Chi- 
nese going westward. 

There were Chinese engineers employed 
along the banks of the Tigres River because 
of their skill in constructing and maintain- 
ing irrigation works; and it is reasonably 

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certain that whosoever wished to do so, 
might in those times have consulted Chinese 
astrologers and doctors in most of the cities 
of southwestern Asia. These wise men are 
reputed to have done a thriving trade in 
their specialties. If the Cathayans were 
so far from home as these statements indi- 
cate, it is impossible not to believe they 
went farther, and crossed the Bosphorus 
into Europe: how far they may have gone 
after that is too speculative to justify even 
a moment's pause. 

Of the Polos it is our good fortune to 
have a narrative from the lips of Marco, the 
son of one and the nephew of the other of 
two brothers who completed the trio which, 
in the thirteenth century set out from Eu- 
rope and journeying on and on, through 
summer and winter, came at length to the 
residence of the Great Khan, which was 
then at a certain rich and great city, called 

This has been identified as Kaiping-fu, 
*^The City of Peace,'' a place that was 
founded in 1256, four years before Kublai 
Khan's accession to the throne of the great 
Empire which had been consolidated by 
himself and his immediate ancestors. 
That city is some distance north of the 
Great Wall, and it was Kublai's favorite 
summer residence, just as it has been pop- 

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ular with the Peking officials and gentry 
ever since. In 1264 it was called Shang- 
tu, " Upper Court '^ for the very reason that 
it was such a favorite resort with the im- 
perial family, its courtiers, and the aris- 
tocracy of the capital. The Polos' visit 
then was the beginning of a sort of acquaint- 
ance between Cathay and Europe and for 
a couple of centuries the people of China, 
both mandarins and commoners, were cer- 
tainly not unfriendly to strangers. We 
have only to read carefully the narrative of 
Marco Polo's travels to be convinced tliat 
there was in his time no disposition to close 
up China behind a great wall which was, 
figuratively, to be raised on all three of the 
land sides, while the gates of the seaports 
were to be closed tightly against European 

When the Portuguese had found their way 
round the southern extremity of Africa and 
up into the East Indies, that land of spices 
which had long been their main objective, 
and had thereafter gone forward till they 
reached the coast of China, from which 
country they were to carry the silks, fabrics 
and many precious things which all Eu- 
rope — alike men and women who could af- 
ford to wear them or use them in any way 
— were so anxious to procure. 

It was then reasonably and correctly as- 

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sumed that China was ready to give wel- 
come to the Europeans with wide-open 
arms. So she would have been had those 
Europeans behaved themselves decently; 
and had the reputation of those Portuguese 
buccaneers not gone before them. It is an in- 
sult to the perspicacity of those who were, 
at that time certainly if they are not now, 
among the brightest and most intelligent 
people of the world, to suppose they knew 
nothing of what the Portuguese had done 
along the African coasts. 

But even if the Chinese were so densely 
Ignorant a^ to know nothing of what the 
rest of the world was doing, and of the 
methods followed by European nations in 
extending their domains, it would have been 
sufficient for them to note just what the 
Europeans did on arriving at Chinese ports 
to be convinced that in the expressed desire 
for legitimate trade and friendly relations, 
the newcomers were far from being ingen- 

I shall not now repeat a story, which has 
been told elsewhere, of the seizure of Macao 
by the Portuguese under a pretext which 
would have been repulsed by force of arms in 
any country of Europe, or in any of the 
over-seas possessions of such a nation. I 
must not, moreover, go into the details of 
the opium trade for that, too, has been 

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treated of elsewhere.* But I am convinced 
that all good Americans will agree that the 
beginnings of the revived trade between 
Chinese and Europeans was not of a nature 
to inspire the Chinese officials with a high 
idea of the integrity and friendliness of 
their European neighbors^ and in this con- 
viction I think all unprejudiced Europeans 
will concur. 

It is almost impossible to discuss fully the 
way in which the Chinese became known 
once more to the rest of the world in the 
sixteenth century, without incurring the 
risk of hurting somebody's feelings. I hold 
no brief for the Chinese government or peo- 
ple, and cannot therefore espouse their 
cause too fully, else would there be a state- 
ment of force too often employed by the 
strong against the weak. On the other 
hand, I do not feel called upon to extenuate 
actual crimes perpetrated in the name of 
progress, friendly relations, and legitimate 

It is well, perhaps, to repeat the sub- 
stance of what I have stated elsewhere, 
that the Manchu government of China, and 
practically all the mandarins of that coun- 
try, were heartily opjwsed to their subjects 
engaging in foreign commerce. All the 
Manchus knew perfectly well that in their 

* See The Coming China, 

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hearts all Chinese were bitterly opposed to 
them: they feared that trade with Europe- 
ans would result in alienating their Chi- 
nese subjects, and for that reason the Man- 
chus did everything they could to block 

The few instances on record of real Chi- 
nese mandarins lending their influence to 
promote such commercial intercourse, con- 
firmed the suspicion of the alien rulers of 
China that friendship between the true Chi- 
nese and Europeans meant successful 
hostilities between Chinese and Manchus. 
It is to be regretted that some of the re- 
corded instances of Chinese mandarins try- 
ing to encourage trade between their 
nationals and Europeans, showed those of- 
fi<!ials to be only too willing to make un- 
holy profit for themselves out of that 
nefarious and debasing opium trade. 

The Manchus would have been blind or 
stupid not to have learnt the lesson which 
the Taeping Bebellion afforded, that was 
avowedly an uprising to dethrone the 
T'sung (Manchu) dynasty and drive out all 
Manchu officials. It was not the only evi- 
dence given the usurpers that the Chinese 
hated them^ but it was the most startling 
one of all. The attitude which the leaders 
took at first of professing to be active 
Christians, strengthened the conviction of 

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206 ous neighbors: the Chinese 

the Manchus that intercourse between their 
Chinese subjects and foreigners was bound 
to result in eyerything that was disastrous 
to themselves, and it cannot be denied that 
recent events have proved the Manchus to 
have been entirely correct in that convic- 
tion. The close of the seventeenth century 
found the whole of Europe well acquainted 
with the Chinese, and by the end of the eight- 
eenth century that acquaintance of the 
latter included the then youngest republic 
in the world, the United States of America. 

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LET US first give a few minute's con- 
sideration to what the life of a little 
boy probably was in the imperial palace, 
let us say until the enforced abdication of 
the child emperor. He was likely to have a 
pleasanter life in retirement from active 
duty as emperor of a collection of peoples 
who never were homogenous, and who bade 
fair to separate violently even before the 
downfall of the Manchus. His life under 
such conditions would certainly have proved 
to be uncomfortable to himself. 

Although the Great Empress Dowager, 
less than ten years ago, proved in her own 
case the fallacy of the Confucian theory 
that women are almost less than nothing in 
the scale of things divine or earthly, it is 
nevertheless true that there had to be on the 
throne of China an emperor to perform the 
rites of ancestor worship; because this 
could be done only by a male, and to offi- 
ciate at various religious ceremonies during 
the year when the sovereign communicated 
with his deceased relatives and ancestors, 
the gods in High Heaven. Hence it was 

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considered as of rather more importance 
that the real empress should bear a son to 
her liege lord than it was, perhaps, in the 
case of other families. If Her Majesty 
was not so favored by the gods, it was then 
incumbent upon the emperor to provide for 
the succession by taking unto himself con- 
cubines — it was not really possible that 
there should be two or more empresses. 

It was because of this necessity for secur- 
ing male issue in the imperial line that the 
famous Empress Dowager managed to get 
the reins of government into her hands. 
During the reign of the Manchus, it was 
required that all Manchu families above a 
certain rank should furnish to the nearest 
magistrate a full description of their mar- 
riageable daughters. Then once a year 
those lists, with possibly comments upon the 
physical attractions of the girls, were sent 
to Peking; and if the emperor desired to do 
so he could require any of the maidens, or 
as many as he chose, to become inmates of 
the palace and imperial concubines. 

It was in this way that Her Majesty, the 
late Empress Dowager, first got into the 
Court. She was physically attractive and 
of much more than average intelligence, and 
in the atmosphere she breathed it was im- 
possible for her not to become tune intri- 
gamte; so that eventually she induced the 

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A CHINESE boy's LIFE 209 

former emperor to raise her to the position 
of his consort, after the death of her prede- 
cessor. She was never recognized officially 
as the sovereign, even if there was prece- 
dent for it in Chinese annals; but that she 
was the ruler of the country just the same 
is indisputable. 

One thing she never forgave the gods, and 
that was for.not giving her a legitimate son 
to ascend the throne when her husband was 
called upon to relinquish, the sceptre. She 
hated to see her nephew, Emperor Ewang 
Hsfi, nominally acquire the power of the 
monarch and we all know she took good 
care that his exercise of that power was a 
farce, so far as concerned anything she did 
not originate or approve. 

When a little prince was bom in the im- 
perial apartments, there were certain super- 
stitious ceremonies to be observed which 
would be considered by us as revolting, and 
it is therefore utterly needless to describe 
them here. It was of the most vital im- 
portance that the court astrologers should 
be informed of the very minute of the boy's 
birth in order to be able to cast his horo- 
scope, and at any future time tell him the 
will of the gods as to any proposed act. 

The next important measure was to secure 
for the baby a wet nurse, because another 
strange superstition forbade the empress or 

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imperial concubine nursing her own male 
offspring. The Chinese rulers were not 
altogether singular in this custom, for its 
parallel may be noticed in other parts of the 
world. Probably some of the empresses, 
queens, or hereditary princesses of ruling 
houses in Europe, ate not permitted, or 
they are unwilling, to nurture tiieir own 
little sons; and yet they would indignantly 
repudiate the idea that doing so was in the 
remotest way influenced by superstition. 

The wet nurse selected for the imperial 
prince was always, if possible, a Manchu 
woman; but there was no fixed rule about 
it and superstition did not operate to pre- 
vent a suitable Chinese woman receiving 
the appointment ; I may say this was a most 
comfortable and lucrative post while the 
active duty continued, for everything was 
done to make the nurse happy, cheerful, and 
as stout and hearty as an abundance of the 
best food could secure these desiderata, in 
order that the little prince might be well 
nurtured and his nutriment contribute to 
make him of a cheerful disposition. There 
are many cases recorded in Chinese history 
of an emperor displaying greater real love 
for his foster mother than for his true 

Instead of Christian baptism, or the Jew- 
ish rite of circumcision, there came — when 

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A CHINESE boy's LIFE 211 

the boy was a month old — the important 
ceremony of shaying the baby's head, usu- 
ally by a priest, and the giving of the " Baby 
Name/' I shall not attempt to enumerate 
the many other ceremonies whi<!h mark the 
babyhood of a little Manchu Prince, for 
there were too many of them. 

If the child was constantly weak, there 
were innumerable rites to induce the gods 
to give him health and strength. This weak- 
ness was all too often conspicuous in the 
imperial children ; and it could hardly have 
been otherwise when we remember the tend- 
ency on the part of so many emperors to 
give way to license which frequently 
amounted to absolute debauchery, thus 
weakening the father both" physically and 

When the boy was fully six, or perhaps 
seven, years of age, came the next important 
ceremony of another shaving of the head. 
This time, however, the patch of hair on the 
very crown was allowed to remain in order 
that the queue might grow and thereafter, 
as soon as possible, the lock was braided and 
lengthened by adding to the hair some 
strands of silk cord. The long Chinese 
queue with which most of us are familiar, 
was never more than two-thirds real hair, 
growing from the wearer's head. 

At this second ceremonial shaving, 

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another name was given to the little prince. 
This one he might continue to bear until he 
attained manhood or even until his acces- 
sion to the throne, if he was chosen to that 
honor; for the right of primogeniture, as 
to this imperial succession, was never abso- 
lute in the Manchu dynasty, or any other, 
so far as I know; the emperor frequently 
exercised the right of choice and in doing 
so, selected a junior son. 

The^ came the duty of assigning teachers 
for the young princess education. The 
most important member of the corps was 
the man who was to instruct the prince in 
the rites and ceremonies of the Court; how 
to perform the solemn ritual connected with 
the New Year, the ceremonial plowing and 
planting of grain in the spring and the 
reaping at harvest time. 

There were a thousand of these ceremon- 
ies connected with the worship of imperial 
ancestors, the expressions of gratitude to the 
gods for benefits conferred by them upon 
the prince himself, the imperial family, or 
the whole nation ; and there were, moreover, 
equally solemn ceremonies to appease the 
wrath of the gods, when misfortune came to 
Court or people, for the responsibility of the 
emperor in these matters was something 
very real in the eyes of the monarch, as well 
as in the opinion of his subjects. 

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A CHINESE boy's LIFE 218 

But I imagine every true American 
mother would have felt pity for the little 
princeling who was always robed in heavy 
garments that must have been a sore burden 
for the little limbs. If naked babies are a 
common enough sight in the streets of 
China, the luxury of kicking up his bare 
heels and tumbling about in the freedom of 
nudity, was scrupulously denied the little 
imperial prince. 

As to pleasure in the precise sense that 
we use the word, there was precious little 
of it allowed the young prince, until he had 
grown to be a big boy. Of toys and all such 
accessories to childish amusement, we may 
be sure that they were provided in plenty, 
but there was not much freedom granted in 
using them lest some accident might result. 

It is related of the late Emperor Kwang 
Hstli that when he was a lad, he saw a bicy- 
cle and insisted upon having its use ex- 
plained to him. This being done, he de- 
manded one for himself. One of the best, 
most expensive, and most gorgeous 
" wheels " was bought, and the prince tried 
to use it; but he neglected to tie up his 
queue, or to wind it round his head as most 
of his fellow countrymen do when riding 
the bicycle. 

Nobody dared touch the imperial queue 
or to suggest that the scion of the imperial 

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house disgrace himself by imitating the ex- 
ample of common people, and wind the dan- 
gerous braid round his neck or his head. 
The result was that the long pigtail quickly 
became wound up in the hind wheel and the 
prince had a bad fall. After that there was 
no more bicycle riding for him ! 

But there were pleasures of a certain kind 
permitted to boys of the imperial family; 
such as boating on the lake within the 
grounds of the palace in the Forbidden 
CJity, that northern section of Peking which 
was strictly reserved for the habitation of 
the Court and its numerous retinues. The 
lads were taught to ride; in the Manchu 
fashion, to be sure, and that would hardly 
have satisfied the ideals of our best horse- 
men ; for the saddle was a high, uncomfort- 
able thing, the stirrups were cumbersome 
and big, the horse or pony was never " bri- 
dle wise,'' and its mouth was like an iron 
vise. Then, too, the prince was not allowed 
to ride alone; at the animal's head ran a 
groom, when there was not a high official 
assigned to this duty, and he led the pony 
at a walk or a very gentle amble. 

Archery was often converted into an exer- 
cise from which the lads derived some pleas- 
ure; yet even this "sport'' was conducted 
in a lazy fashion that would never have 
satisfied a stout, healthy American lad. 

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A CHINESE boy's LIFE 215 

The Manchn prince took his stand at the 
spot indicated by the gray-haired Manchu 
general who was appointed to be his teacher, 
and was first carefully instructed as to the 
proper i>ostures9 the grip of the bow, 
the drawing of the arrow from the quiver, 
the placing it against the bowstring, and the 
correct " form " to be observed in drawing 
the bow and letting the arrow fly. When 
the arrows had all been discharged, an at- 
tendant gathered them up and returned 
them to the prince to be shot again. There 
was no real exercise about it and no true 

Falconry was another of the sports per- 
mitted a young Manchu prince, and possibly 
he may have derived some pleasure and phy- 
sical benefit from this. But most of the 
princess time was given to his books; to 
pouring over the Classics, learning what 
such and such a sage had said on some 
memorable occasion; why this or that one 
of the prince's ancestors had given his de- 
cision for or against a petition that had 
come up to him through the Council of Min- 

I fear that when all conditions of life sur- 
rounding an imperial prince of the Manchu, 
until lately reigning House, are considered 
the verdict of a hearty American lad would 
be emphatically against it as satisfactory or 

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enjoyable. Before leaving the Court, it 
should be stated that when a little prince 
grew big enough, some of the lads belonging 
to the families of high rank courtiers were 
compelled to be his playmates; but in no 
possible circumstances were these permitted 
to assert themselves; they were compelled to 
be little slaves to their imperial master, and 
naturally the other boys of the Court tried 
to escape the punishment of being playmates 
to a prince. 

Making what allowance is necessary for 
difference in rank and dignity, the life of 
Manchu boys belonging to families who were 
near the throne, was somewhat the same as 
that of a prince. There was rarely any- 
thing of that freedom which is one of the 
greatest charms of the boyhood of our chil- 
dren. Going down the line of importance 
and wealth, we should have found somewhat 
similar conditions surrounding nearly all 
the boys in China a score or two of years 
ago. Amongst the gentry and the well-to- 
do, education, that is, memorizing the Clas- 
sics, was the highest ambition. 

Usually the eldest son was trained to fol- 
low in the footsteps of his father; if the 
parent was a literary man, a mandarin, the 
eldest son was educated to pass the civU 
service examinations and become a man- 

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A CHINESE boy's LIFE 217 

darin. If the father was a banker, a mer- 
chant, or a farmer, the duty of carrying on 
the occupation devolved upon the eldest son, 
save in exceptional cases that were ex- 
tremely rare. 

Now, all this has been changed. There 
are no more young princes to be trained in 
the Court, and too frequently to be made 
accustomed to the licentiousness of that life. 
Sons of all classes are now receiving an edu- 
cation that is of real benefit, and as the boys 
in China of this generation come to man- 
hood, they will find themselves fitted to 
associate on terms of the fullest equality 
with their fellows from any other parts of 
the world. 

Instead of lazy, effeminate "plays'' of 
the past, there are active games to play on 
school grounds or college athletic fields 
where there is an equality which is delight- 
fully democratic. Doubtless a large ma- 
jority of the Chinese parents will continue 
to carry their little boys to the temple when 
the child is a month old to have the entire 
head shaved and the first name conferred; 
but there will be very few repetitions of the 
second shaving process. 

It is surprising how many Chinese parents 
who are not themselves professing Chris- 
tians, are asking Christian ministers to 

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baptize their children and give them a per- 
sonal name which shall be the only one for 
them to nse thronghont their whole lives. 

The Chinese boy of former times derived 
fully as mnch pleasure, in his opinion, from 
the New Year's festivities as do our chil- 
dren from the gifts, pleasures, and religious 
or social ceremonies of Christmas. In a 
certain way there was some similarity 
between the two events. In China the birth- 
day was that of a New Year and inciden- 
tally it was the birthday of every one in the 
realm of the gods, in the habitation of the 
blessed dead, in the homes of the living. 
For a Chinese baby was always two years 
old on the first day of the first Moon of the 
New Year following its birth, no matter 
what may have been the actual day of its 
nativity. Therefore a -child born on the 
27th day of the 12th Moon was reckoned to 
be one whole year older than one born on 
the 2d day of the 1st Moon of the following 
year, although there might be only three 
days' difference in their ages. From the 
palace in the Forbidden City down to the 
hovel of the beggar, there was something to 
mark oflf the New Year as a time of jollity 
and something very like our "Peace on 

Another pleasure that the boy of the 
humbler class had in larger measure than 

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A CHINESE boy's LIFE 219 

his friends who were better oflf than himself 
in world's goods, was the visits to the ances- 
tral tombs. Is it not tme that our own 
really poor people get more pleasure from 
the one picnic in the year they attend, than 
do those of us who are blessed with frequent 
days of recreation? It was certainly true 
in China, that boys who could count on just 
that one day's outing took from it an im- 
mense amount of pleasure to be treasured 
up, perhaps, for the succeeding year. I feel 
sure there is more pleasure in store for the 
Chinese boys who are now growing up than 
ever there wa» for their fathers ! 

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ALTHOUGH most of our students of so- 
cial science say that there are sections 
in some of the great American cities where 
there are conditions of squalor and poverty, 
equal to if not exceeding what are to be 
found in any part of the globe; yet as a na- 
tion we do not begin to know what poverty 
is, as the word is used to describe conditions 
in China, and God grant we never shall 
learn the full Chinese meaning of that awful 

There are large areas of the Chinese Re- 
public where the people do not know, from 
one New Year's day to the next, what it is 
to eat a full and hearty meal ; and there are 
even larger areas wherein the people rarely 
sit down to such a meal of really nutritious 
food. The struggle for existence is not one 
which merely makes the heads of the family 
wonder what the next year, or the next sea- 
son, or the next month, is going to bring; 
it is one that does not permit many a father 
and mother to say what to-morrow shall 
give them and their little ones. 

Amongst those millions who are literally 


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A CHINESE girl's LIFE 221 

living from hand to mouth, because there is 
nothing reserved on the shelves of the lar- 
der, it is imperatively necessary for every 
pair, of hands in the family to contribute 
somewhat to the support of the household. 
Hence it is that with people so circum- 
stanced the desire for boy children is para- 
mount. Nature has compelled those people 
to realize that girls cannot be driven like 
beasts of burden, as boys may be; and even 
if a native poet has sung of the little damsels 
as "a thousand pieces of gold," girls are 
considered so undesirable that often a man 
replies to the question, " How many children 
have you?" by mentioning the number of 
his sons, ignoring completely his daughters, 
who are looked upon as a misfortune to be 
forgotten, if possible. 

China, like Japan, is a land of children 
and the traveler wonders whence come the 
swarms of little folks who block the streets 
of the city and sprawl along the roadway 
through every village and hamlet. The doc- 
trine of Malthus, that governments should 
assert themselves to limit the birth of chil- 
dren to the ability of their parents to pro- 
vide for them in childhood, educate them, 
and give them a start in life, has never been 
heard of in China, except by some students 
of sociology, who have not yet dreamt of 
applying such laws to their own people. 

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In the circumstances it is hardly surpris- 
ing that in certain districts, those wherein 
the conditions of poverty are such as have 
just been intimated, female infanticide is 
frightfully common. In the great Hoang- 
ho and Yang-tze valleys, where the devasta- 
tion caused by floods is inevitably followed 
by famine, and the condition of the poor is 
absolutely hopeless, it is hardly to be won- 
dered at that when a new baby is of the 
wrong sex, its span of life is measured by a 
few minutes, or an hour or two, or possibly 
a day or so; and that it is the poor father 
who takes upon himself the awful respon- 
sibility of determining what shall be the 
little girl's fate. 

^^ It is absurd to argue that infanticide is 
no more prevalent in China than in Eng- 
land; or to describe it as a curse of the 
land which devastates whole districts. Let 
it be granted at once that most Chinese 
parents would wish their children all to be 
boys; and if such could be the case, there 
would probably not be a country on the face 
of the globe where infanticide was so rare 
— even though in such a case there would, 
in the course of a few generations, be no 
infants at all and the whole race would die 
out. It is doubtless true, however, that 
cases have been known where so prevalent 
was infanticide that locally girls could not 

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A CHINESE girl's LIFE 228 

be obtained for marriage, and, as with the 
Sabines of old, other districts had to provide 
them." ♦ 

Sometimes, when conditions of life have 
become acute and it is a question of all the 
family starving quickly, or a few starving 
slowly, even boys are sold to become slaves 
if not something worse in a land where 
sodomy is beastly fashionable; yet it is the 
girls who are usually sacrificed first, and 
these, too, become slaves, when they are not 
compelled to follow a life of shame. It 
must not always be taken for granted that 
the little girPs corpse which is seen floating 
seawards in a river, or left unburied by the 
roadside for dogs or vultures to devour, 
stands for another case of female infanti- 
cide ; it may have been that death came from 
starvation or other natural causes, and that 
pinching poverty forbade giving the little 
one decent burial. 

Having thus considered the most terrible 
phase of a girl's life in China, as let us 
hope may be said it was but is never again 
to be, let us turn to those which are not so 
repulsive; nay, may indeed be bright and 
attractive. Yet if we begin with the im- 
perial princesses of old times, or even dur- 
ing the reign of the late Manchus, we find 
that the life of a girl bom within the im- 

• Ball, J. Dyer, The Chineae at Home. 

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perial palace and of the imperial family, 
was not often a happy one. For them there 
was rarely the prospect of a happy married 
life, becanse there were no consorts to be 
had for them ; the difference of rank between 
those of the blood royal and young men of 
the highest native nobility, forbade the em- 
peror giving his daughters to be the wives 
of his subjects. Occasionally an alliance 
with the son of a reigning family in a 
neighboring foreign country was arranged 
for a princess of the imperial family of 
China, and she was sent away in great 
state, an object of envy with all her less 
fortunate sisters. 

In the narrative of Marco Polo^s adven- 
tures, we read of his being entrusted with 
the care of the Imperial Princess, whom 
he conducted by ship to Persia, where she 
was to become the wife of Arghun Khan, 
himself a great-nephew of Kublai Khan. 
There are, too, other instances of these dip- 
lomatic marriages, but they are not many, 
and usually the princesses of the imperial 
Manchu house were doomed to celibacy. In 
youth they were permitted to be Maids of 
Honor to the empress, and when they were 
older they frequently had to retire into a 
monastery or retreat. 

They, like most of the ^Is of China io. 
all classes, received very little education, 

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and for them life was rather a dreary exist- 
ence. Amongst girls of the higher classes, 
yet below the imperial circle, the life of a 
girl was not necessarily a hard one. We 
may not be able to think favorably of the 
way they were given in marriage and of the 
attitude of superiority assumed towards 
them by the mother-in-law especially, yet 
they had a certain consolation in the thought 
that time would adjust matters, surely so 
if they were so fortunate as to have sons. 
In the homes of the well-to-do, and even in 
those where the family had to be frugal, to 
make both ends meet, yet not forever facing 
the dreadful poverty which has been men- 
tioned, provision was made to give bright- 
ness and color to the little girl's life. She 
had her place in the family outings and in 
the collection of Nursery Rhymes which Dr. 
Headland has kindly placed at our disposal 
("Chinese Mother Goose Rhymes"), there 
are plenty to show that when they could 
aflford to do it, if my curious expression is 
understood, parents really loved their girl 
babies almost as much as they did the little 

Indeed, amongst those who did not have 
to pinch and strain to keep the wolf away, 
there were many Chinese who declared they 
would rather have a girl child than not; 
because then, when she approached the mar^ 

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riageable age they could ask the young man 
who was selected to be her husband, to 
come and live with them years before the 
wedding, and by adopting him spare them- 
selves entirely the sorrows of parting with 
their daughter. 

The sincere followers of Confucius were 
always shamefully neglectful about their 
daughter's education ; yet, as I have already 
said, it was not always true that girls had 
no education at all. 

The dress of a young girl in former times, 
from her quaint coiflf eur, suggesting yet not 
imitating precisely that of her mother, down 
to her brilliantly-colored robes, and pretty 
little feet, if they were permitted to develop 
naturally, or her awkward, misshapen, 
cramped ones, was as attractive as one 
could wish. As a bride she was gorgeously 
arrayed, and her dower often meant a heavy 
drain upon her father's purse, yet it seems 
to have been willingly accept^ whenever 
the family means permitted. After the wed- 
ding the young married woman changed the 
style of dressing her hair, and her entire 
costume, to conform to the rules of society. 

With the coming of the first Christian 
(Protestant) missionaries, began the im- 
provement of conditions for Chinese girls. 
At first it was found by the men who were 
the pioneer representatives of the evangelis- 

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tic bodies to occupy the field, only a little 
over a hundred years ago, that they could 
do nothing with their work in the Chinese 

But when the wives of the first mission- 
aries appeared, and later, more effectively, 
when unpaarried women from Christian 
countries gave themselves for the work, it 
was not long before they found their way 
into the native homes, and then actually be- 
gan the emancipation of the women of 
China. What a marvelous change has 
taken place within the lifetime of some who 
are still working in the foreign field. Even 
amongst Chinese who vehemently refuse to 
put away the religion of their forefathers, 
the position of the girls is so different from 
what it was formerly, that they seem almost 
to be new creatures. 

The mission schools were the first to give 
the girls some interest in life and the wisest 
of the Chinese statesmen realized that the 
progress of their country, for which they 
themselves were hoping and working, could 
not be achieved properly unless women were 
taken into consideration. This meant that 
girls must be prepared, when grown up, 
to take upon themselves the duties of 
women in a way that was without prece- 
dent in Chinese history, and yet which was 
recognized as both inevitable and desirable 

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in the changed, remodeled, progressive 
China, and those same statesmen were as 
eager to nplift the girls in education at 
least, as were the missionaries. 

I knew China when the most that Qonld 
be expected of women in that country was 
that they might become Bible women, help- 
ers, and interpreters for the foreign women 
missionaries. It is difficult for me to real- 
ize that there are Chinese young women 
who have sole charge of hospitals; that 
young girls are studying medicine and fit- 
ting themselves to become expert nurses, and 
in a thousand ways demonstrating most in- 
contestibly that they are fully able to do 
whatever their sisters of the West can do. 

The life of the Chinese girl to-day is so 
different from what her mother's was that 
it is difficult to recognize society in that 
land. There are, as has been intimated, 
traces of liberty having been debased into 
license; and the reactionary performances 
of the Chinese suffragettes are, if possible, 
more displeasing than are those of their 
English sisters, simply because the contrast 
between the normal and the abnormal is 
greater in China than it is in Great Britain. 
Yet I do not seriously apprehend that this 
misconstruing of privileges, coming from 
emancipation, into the right to be destrnc- 

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A CHINESE girl's LIFE 229 

tive, is at all likely to be permanent or con- 
spicuously general in China. 

It is not at all surprising that neither in 
advanced Japan nor in progressive China, 
has there yet been any apparent disposition 
on the pajpt of girls and young women to 
take up the stage as a profession. In both 
countries, until a very few years ago even in 
Japan, the actors were considered as a class 
so low in the social scale that it was deemed 
a disgrace for any man of respectable 
family to associate with them. Yet strange 
and inconsistent as it must seem, parents 
of the greatest refinement and purest morals 
would take their daughters to witness per- 
formances of dramas that were far from 
being suited to young people, whether girls 
or boys. Furthermore, all female parts 
were taken by boys, and there were, there- 
fore, no actresses. 

Recently, as many know, the experiment 
of having at least the principal female roles 
interpreted by women, has been tried 
amongst the Japanese, and some American 
audiences have had the pleasure (?) of lis- 
tening to at least one Japanese actress who 
posed as a star. China has not yet ad- 
vanced so far along this progressive path, 
and it is very doubtful if the people will be 
induced to countenance it for a very long 

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time to come. Social lines must be entirely 
changed before it would be possible for a 
respectable woman to appear on the stage, 
and the drama itself will have to be remod- 
eled before such a thing is possible. 

In some of the girls' schools under the 
management of foreign women teachers, the 
pupils have been permitted and even encour- 
aged to give private performances to which 
their female friends were admitted. Some 
of those who were favored with the oppor- 
tunity to witness these plays, say that many 
of the girls displayed much ability in inter- 
pretation of their characters and in the 
reading of the lines. 

There is one thing to say for Chinese girls 
and women, which is that when they are 
convinced that duty calls upon them to ad- 
vocate a just cause, they display remarkable 
ability to overcome their natural timidity, 
and oftentimes they speak well in public. 
The very first Chinese lady who visited 
England for the purpose of asking greater 
assistance than had been given towards help- 
ing to bring out the Chinese women, was a 
surprise to all. Her gentle force, her clear- 
ness of presentation, and her facility of 
speech, made an impression which caused 
hearty response to her plea. The same 
thing may be said of many Chinese young 
women who have spoken to American audi- 

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THE carriages and carts which are 
credited to the Chinese of a remote 
past, and which have already been briefly 
alluded to, were rather poor makeshifts for 
traveling. Apparently their use was re- 
stricted to the imperial family and oflcials 
of government who represented the emperor. 
Those for His Imperial Majesty himself 
were doubtless very gorgeous affairs, so far 
as exterior decoration was concerned, but we 
should^ I fear, be somewhat disposed to liken 
them, very Impolitely, to be sure, to the 
gilded and bepictured boxes which cut such 
an important figure in the processions of 
circuses and menageries that sometimes 
pass through our streets. 

They were simply boxes, the floor of which 
rested right on the axle, guiltless of springs 
or any appliances to take up the jolting, and 
the Chinese have not been conspicuous for 
smooth roads, even if some of their highways 
have been remarkably permanent. But a 
road that is laid with great slabs of granite 
which are not fitted together properly, can- 
not be a very comfortable one to drive over, 


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The slabs slip away from one another, leav- 
ing wide spaces into which the wheels 
descend with a bump that nearly dislocates 
every joint of the inside traveler, and no 
amount of cushions can suffice to diminish 
greatly that jolting. The old bridges, too, 
were usually made with similar huge granite 
slabs either laid crosswise or longitudinally, 
and these were, if possible, even greater tor- 
tures than the roadways. 

The draft animals were either bullocks or 
horses. If the occupant of the carriage 
were a person of great importance, or the 
occasion demanded or justified the extrava- 
gance, there might be two or three of these 
draft animals strung in tandem : the wheel 
horse or bullock would be harnessed into 
the shafts and each one of the others was 
hitched independently by traces — ropes 
usually — direct to the axle of the vehicle; 
so that it was impossible for the united 
power of the animals to be given to the task 
of drawing the carriage. 

These closed carriages were entered, and 
left, by the front which was open, by climb- 
ing over the shaft as gracefully as could be 
done: the driver sat right over the shaft 
animal. If the rain drove in, or the wind 
was too strong, or the sun beat in too 
fiercely, there was a curtain to be let down 

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and thus were the stuflBiness and discomfort 
of the interior increased. 

There were, also, the carts at the service 
of the traveler. These were simply open 
boxes with low sides. The travelers stowed 
away themselves and their belongings as 
they liked; the first comer always appro- 
priating the lion's share of the space, and 
the most comfortable place, of course, and 
made room for the rest only when compelled 
to do so. 

Another wheeled vehicle, especially pop- 
ular in the north for going short distances, 
was the wheelbarrow. It had a large wheel 
in the center, with narrow platforms on 
either side thereof upon which the travelers 
reclined, resting against the center which 
served to protect them from the wheel. 
Long handles projected toward the rear and 
were held by the coolie who was the motive 
power. He often eased his burden some- 
what by a rope attached to the handles and 
passing over his shoulders. Occasionally 
an extra coolie — or even two or three — 
was hitched to the front of the wheelbarrow 
and when the road was fairly good, they 
could trot along at six or seven miles an 
hour. In some ways these Chinese wheel- 
barrows recalled the Irish jaunting-car. 

It was very amusing to see the proprietor 

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of one of these wheelbarrows on the way 
from his home to his customary stand in the 
morning, or returning at nightfall. Instead 
of trundling the vehicle in front of him as 
we should expect him to do, he generally 
took the various sections apart, divided 
wheel, shafts, seat, etc., into two portions 
which he slung at the ends of his long carry- 
ing stick* Then he stooped down, put the 
stick across one shoulder and raising the 
load from the ground, carried the whole 
thing away. 

I have used the past tense in writing of 
these various wheeled vehicles, but they are 
all to be seen even now in parts of the coun- 
try to which the railway has not pene- 
trated, or where there are no long carriages 
something like an omnibus plying regularly 
along the highroad. But wheeled vehicles 
do not seem ever to have been remarkably 
popular with the Chinese traveler who had 
but a short distance to go, or when his jour- 
ney was somewhat lengthy, yet might be 
broken at times where accommodations were 
to be had at an inn. 

In these cases, the traveler usually pre- 
ferred to walk and combine business or 
pleasure with the necessity for going from 
home on his journey. If he were a literary 
man or a philosopher, there would often 
be memorial arches, raised in honor of some 

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famous man, or to a widow whose faith- 
fulness to the memory of her departed 
spouse, or whose diligence in securing an 
education for her sons, had appealed to the 
people or the oflBicials. Appreciation took 
the form of a stone archway that looks 
like a huge, over-ornate gateway; but with- 
out the gates. Or there might be any one 
of a hundred other things to attract the 
attention of the traveler, when the leisure 
of walking permitted of an examination 
which could not be had were the traveler in 
carriage, cart or wheelbarrow. 

The itinerary merchant found many an 
opportunity to turn a penny, if he was on 
foot. But all Chinese prefer, whenever it 
is possible, to travel by water, and there is 
no country on earth of which it may so 
fitly be said that the wisdom of Providence 
is displayed in no way so striking as the 
causing of rivers to flow past the large cities 
and towns! I cannot give the credit due 
for this brilliant (?) piece of logic. 

So marked is the Chinese preference for 
traveling by water, that frequently a jour- 
ney of hundreds of miles and covering sev- 
eral days, is taken rather than the overland 
trip of a tenth the distance and of only a 
few hours' duration. The coasting steam- 
ers which ply between the various open 
ports from Hongkong to Tienstin, and the 

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score or more of intermediate places are 
always crowded, in the steerage at any rate. 

The rivers are covered with crafts of all 
sorts and kinds, and even the slow-going 
cargo-boats will usually have their comple- 
ment of passengers. Many of the passen- 
ger crafts along the rivers, canals, and inte- 
rior waterways, are barges with two or even 
three decks, and into them human beings 
are crowded in defiance of all regulations 
that might lessen danger or contribute to 
rescue in the event of accident. Those 
barges are often towed by steam launches 
and altogether too frequently one or more of 
the tow — for it is not uncommon to see sev- 
eral of them strung out behind the little 
steamer — will be capsized in a collision or 
some untoward mishap, and then the loss 
of life is appalling; for boxed in like sar- 
dines, as are the passengers, there is little 
chance of escape or rescue. 

When I first went to the Par East, in 1866, 
it was an unusual thing for a Chinese to 
ask for first cabin accommodation in the 
smaller English or French steamers that 
plied between Hongkong and Foochow, or 
the larger vessels which came from Euroi>e 
and went on to Shanghai, or, again, the 
coasters from Shanghai north, as well as 
the river steamers on the Yang-tze. 

This was not because of any disposition 

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to refuse them the privilege; but it was 
wholly due to the natives' proper ideas of 
economy. They could go in the second class 
fop less that one-half the fare for a first 
class ticket ; or in the steerage for very much 
less than the second class fare, and their 
ideas of comfort were not at all shocked 
by the rough accommodations in the steer- 
age. Besides, very few of the Chinese had 
then come to like the cabin fare, and pre- 
ferred the bowl of rice, the stews, and the 
dried fish which were served in other quar- 

All this has been entirely changed, and 
the change is especially noticeable in the 
mail steamers plying between Hongkong and 
Singapore. In these it is often difficult to 
get a first class cabin — or state-room — 
unless application is made long before the 
day of sailing, because those rooms are 
likely to have been reserved by the rich Chi- 
nese merchants who either live in the Straits 
Settlements, or whose extensive business in- 
terests require them to travel back and forth 

As many of them, whose homes are at 
Singapore, or other towns of the Straits 
Settlements, Burma, and elsewhere in those 
British possessions, are bona fide 'BritiBh 
subjects, and properly tenacious as to their 
rights, it would be impossible for the agents 

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of the British steamers to refuse them the 
best the ship affords, provided they are 
willing to pay the bill; and it would be so 
impolitic for the French, Oerman, or other 
lines to do it, that Chinese saloon passen- 
gers are always numerous; and they are 
rarely in any way objectionable. 

But the most comfortable way to travel 
by land, if the distance is not too great, is 
by the sedan chair. It is not markedly dis- 
similar to the chair that is depicted in 
English books of a hundred years or so ago, 
and which is to be seen even in American 
pictures of about that same period. The 
tall, box-like structure has a seat at the 
right height It is entered from the open 
front, when the rear carrier tips the chair 
forward so that the passenger may step 
over the carrying poles in front. Cushions 
and arm rests add to the comfort; and pri- 
vacy may be secured by lowering the side 
curtains. On each side at about the level 
of the inside arm rest, is a long pole stretch- 
ing front and back. These are lashed to- 
gether so that they will just fit nicely to 
the bearers* shoulders. Usually there are 
but two coolies and what they can do is 
almost as surprising as are the feats cred- 
ited to the famous Japanese jinrikishamen. 

In the palmy days of the mandarins, by 
an ingenious device of crossing short poles 

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at front and back, and then lashing others 
longitudinally to these, it was possible to 
multiply the number of bearers until there 
were as many as a dozen at each end of the 
carrying poles. When the emperor went 
abroad in his magnificent sedan chair, the 
number of bearers was quite that many, 
and they were carefully selected so as to 
be of about equal stature and then they were 
trained to keep step in equal stride so as 
to eliminate all unpleasant swaying and 
irregular motion. 

Very often the sedan chair was increased 
in size, longitudinally, until it became a 
large palanquin or closed litter; the carry- 
ing poles were greatly lengthened and firmly 
lashed to the pack-saddles of bullocks or 
horses, one in front and one behind, and 
each of those animals was led by a groom. 
In such a capacious vehicle, it was an easy 
matter for an entire family to be stowed 
away, provided the father was not too big 
a man or the children not too numerous or 
too large. 

For traveling in remote districts, and es- 
pecially in mountain regions, the Chinese 
travelers preferred the mountain sedan 
chair, which was similar to the one that 
has been described, only it was rather 
lighter ; but saddle-horses were perhaps more 
popular, and this last mentioned mode of 

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travel is practically the only one which 
foreign men wonld think of using. Ladies 
and children, foreigners or natives, going 
to mountain resorts make use of the 
jinrikisha, the sedan chair, or the horse 

Of the Chinese railways there is little to 
say. They are very commonplace and the 
second and third class coaches are always 
overcrowded; for it is amazing how the Chi- 
nese peasants have taken to this way of 
traveling. The American style of car is 
generally most common, although some lines 
display a preference for the European com- 
partment carriage. On most of the lines 
something remains to be done in the matter 
of cleanliness and creature comfort; but 
doubtless such defects will be remedied as 
time goes on and passengers assert them- 
selves more vigorously. The fact that one 
can to-day speak of the '^ thousands of miles 
of railways in China," is in itself a sign of 
what a tremendous change has come over 
that land within a decade or two. 

Traveling naturally brings to mind hotel 
accommodations. At all the principal open 
ports, at Hongkong and Macao, some of the 
smaller ports even, there are excellent hotels 
and boarding houses for the convenience of 
Western travelers. These hardly need to be 
considered here, and it is sufficient to say 

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that there are "European*' hotels, con- 
nected with which there are usually good 
restaurants, and "American" hotels, in 
which' the rate per day includes room and 
meals with full attcfndance. This latter 
style of hostelry is decidedly more popular 
even with visitors from Europe than is the 
kind of hotel to which they are generally 
supi)osed to be accustomed. 

The few travelers who leave the beaten 
tracks and plunge into the interior, must 
be prepared to put up with what the coun- 
try affords. The apartments may be clean, 
but the chances against it are rather more 
than even. The earliest European travel- 
ers in China, as a rule, give the hotels a 
pretty fair reputation, and they speak of 
the landlords in a favorable way, which 
cannot, I fear, be confirmed by those who 
visit the remote provinces nowadays. 

Of food, except in the unfortunate dis- 
tricts which happen to be temporarily 
famine-stricken, there is usually an abun- 
dance of its kind. The principal raw meat 
offered for sale is pork; the vegetables 
rarely include the useful potato, but of 
chickens, ducks, and eggs there are always 
plenty. Bread is practically an unknown 
quantity, and for it the ever present boiled 
rice is a satisfactory substitute or not ac- 
cording to individual taste. Although the 

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Chinese do use salt in the preparation of 
foody unlike oar Japanese neighbors, it is 
well for the stranger to provide himself 
with a bottle of this important condiment. 
The best way for tourists to get along is 
to secure the services of a cook who has 
some qualifications as an interpreter in the 
particular districts it is proposed to visits 
and let him prepare all the meals, purchas- 
ing the raw materials as he can. He will, 
of course, take his commission, '^ squeeze,'' 
that is an established custom in the Far 
East ; but this unlawful addition to the mess 
bill will hardly bankrupt the traveler! 

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ENOUGH has been said at various places 
in this book, of the habitations of our 
Chinese neighbors, and it is not where they 
live but rather upon what they feed to live, 
that this chapter treats. I ought, perhaps, 
to correct a misapprehension which some- 
thing that has been said about the height 
of the Chinese residence may cause. It is 
true that the people dislike climbing up 
more than one flight of stairs, and conse- 
quently few of their houses are more than 
two stories in height; yet in crowded cities 
where land values are somewhat on a parity 
with those of the great places in other lands, 
houses run up to three, four, five, or per- 
haps more stories, and are as crowded as 
are the tenements of any place on earth; 
for sanitary inspectors to see that the proper 
allowance of cubic feet of air space for 
each occupant of a room, have not yet been 
appointed in China, or permitted to gain 
an unlawful livelihood by accepting bribes 
to see that regulations are flagrantly dis- 
obeyed. Perhaps these conditions will soon 
be accomplished ! 


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On my return from the first sojourn in 
China, I was constantly asked how I got 
along in that land for food; and if I was 
compelled to conform to the native custom 
of eating dogs and cats and rats. It 
seemed to be taken as a rule, of course, 
that those animals constituted the staple 
diet of the Chinese, although it was always 
admitted that they ate some rice, and occa- 
sionally partook of fish when the daintier 
animals I have named were not procurable. 

I have never taken the time to run to 
earth the absurd idea that the Chinese pre- 
fer dogs and cats and rats to all other 
kinds of fresh meat ; and if I were to under- 
take the task, I really should not know 
where to begin. The fable is mentioned in 
the most casual way by plenty of writers, 
but they always ridicule the notion, just as 
I do, and not one of them has ever taken 
the trouble to tell us how the myth started. 

I have no doubt that some poor Chinese 
would gladly eat a steak cut from a fat 
dog, or a cat chop or a rat stew, if he were 
on the verge of starvation; I am sure I 
should do so in such circumstances. 

In the early years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, when emigrants from Europe were 
swarming across the ocean in sailing ves- 
sels that were inadequately supplied with 
stores, a rat fetched eighteen pence, and a 

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mouse sixpence : or, converted into our pres- 
ent currency, those prices would equal about 
fifty and twenty cents. 

I know, too, that there are extraordinary 
superstitions rife amongst the Chinese about 
the efficacy of certain parts of these animals 
for the cure of some diseases. Rats' meat 
was supposed by some to be particularly 
good as an aphrodisiac, and the curious 
traveler might, if he hunted carefully, find 
a shop wherein it is sold for this purpose; 
but I rather doubt it. 

So, too, the inquisitive stranger might 
find a shop, patronized by old women whose 
hair is falling out too rapidly to please 
their vanity, wherein rats' meat is sold to 
be prepared as a stew with certain other 
things. This dish is not eaten as a table 
delicacy to gratify the palate, but because 
it is supposed to stop the hair coming out, 
and even to restore the growth of that 
which is considered the crown of a wom- 
an's glory as much in China as anywhere 

In the south it used to be considered that 
the flesh of black cats and dogs (the density 
of the color enhancing their value) would 
prevent the diseases common in midsum- 
mer, and secure the eater's general health 
throughout the ensuing year ; but this again 
is, I fancy, an old-wives' tale that is now 

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consigned to the realms of myth and ex- 
ploded superstition. 

Yet this idea of the queer gastronomic 
habits of the Chinese is strangely persist- 
enty and it is not six months since my at- 
tempt to refute the statement that dogs 
and cats and rats are a staple article of 
food even in the progressive Chinese Repub- 
lic of to-day, was received with a plain look 
of incredulity, and poorly-concealed sur- 
prise that a man who pretended to have 
lived amongst the Chinese had made such 
poor use of his opportunities as not to know 
what everybody ought to. 

At some of the "swell" restaurants in 
Chinese cities, dog meat used to be served by 
name in various ways, and it was decidedly 
not a cheap dish. But even so, if — as was 
always the case — the puppies were fed 
from the time they were weaned upon noth- 
ing but good rice, milk, and other clean, fit- 
ting food, and carefully kept from roaming 
about to pick up anything filthy, I fail to 
see that their meat was one bit more un- 
wholesome or repulsive in any way than is 
that of a young calf; and the wme thing 
may be said of kittens, for when they were 
offered as a dish, they too had been raised 
in the same way. 

As a matter of fact, our Chinese neigh- 
bors are the most sanitary and wisest eaters 

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in the Far East. Most of their food is well 
cooked; if this were not true there would 
be far greater ravages from cholera and 
zymotic diseases than there is, for the few 
vegetables and fruits which they eat raw 
are not cultivated in the most sanitary 
manner. The way they use fertilizer is not 
conducive to the best results as preventive 
of infectious disease, because of the uni- 
versal use of night-soil for this purpose. 

Beef is now far more popular than it 
used to be, because formerly the animals 
were considered too useful to be slaugh- 
tered, and when they had outlived their use- 
fulness as farm animals, there was too 
little flesh left on their poor bones to make 
a decent meal; while what little there was 
was too tough to yield to the most skilful 
cook's treatment. Mutton was and is com- 
mon and good in the north. It has always 
been practically unknown in the south for 
there was no suitable grazing land until 
the extreme western part of the country 
was reached, where the hill pastures were 
not cultivable; there it becomes popular 

The Chinese who gave any sort of alle- 
giance to Buddhistic teachings, always re- 
fused to conform to the alleged injunction 
to refrain from eating flesh of any kind. 
Consequently everything in the meat line 

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that they could afford to eat (that is when 
the animal was not considered more use- 
ful in some other way than as food) has 
always been consumed, from the flesh of 
wild animals down to young chickens, duck- 
lings, and goslings. 

Poultry, including chickens, ducks and 
geese, is plentiful ; the last mentioned being 
the best of all. The Chinese are very fond 
of game birds as food ; swan, pheasant, quail, 
and even the peacock are eaten by those 
who can afford to do so. My Chinese 
friends assured me that eggs which had 
been preserved in salt for two or three years 
are particularly good; but I was always 
willing to take their word for it without 
insisting upon proving the truth of what 
they said by personal experiment. 

There certainly is no such thing as a 
sensible dispute about what kinds of food 
are of good taste (de gustibus non est dis- 
putandum). The Chinese gourmet turns 
away from the Englishman's slice of roast- 
beef, when the blood follows the knife; or 
the German's raw beefsteak, or the Ameri- 
can's mince pie; or the Frenchman's snails, 
with just the same disgust that we feel at 
his two-year-old eggs or his saut^ of fat 
puppy dogs ! I am sure my Chinese friends 
have to overcome quite as much prejudice 
before they learn to appreciate a terrapin 

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stew, as I did before I realized that sharks' 
fins, and birds' nest soup were quite pala- 

If there is precious little that treads the 
earth or flies in the air which Chinese will 
not eat, it is perfectly true that of the 
things which live in the sea, all is fish that 
comes to the Chinese net; and the wonder 
is that the close-meshed nets which they 
drag in the smallest stream, or haul along 
the bottom of the sea, had not long ago de- 
pleted both inland and sea waters of every- 
thing like animal life. Yet thanks to a 
prodigal Nature which has provided that 
fish shall reproduce by the millions and 
hundreds of millions, the supplies appear 
to be as bountiful as ever. 

Every device that the ingenuity of man 
can accomplish is made use of to capture 
the highly prized inhabitants of the sea, 
no matter what their size may be. Besides 
the commonest ones, with which every one 
is familiar, there are some which are rather 
unusual. The fish are induced to jump 
into boats by hanging over the sides painted 
boards in the daytime, or by a lantern 
adroitly placed at night. Long guiding 
nets are set in shallow water and these lead 
to "pounds"; then the fishermen, by clap- 
ping boards together, pounding on any 
metallic vessel with sticks, and by making 

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a frightful din in any way they can, drive 
the fish from deep water into these pounds. 

Many trained cormorants are also used 
to assist the fishermen; and — as is the 
ease in Japan — these birds are furnished 
with a collar that is just tight enough to 
prevent the bird swallowing the fish. The 
collar has to be removed when the bird has 
been despoiled of three or four of its cap- 
tures, and the cormorant allowed to take 
its toll; otherwise it will sulk and refuse 
to catch anything. 

One of the most satisfactory ways of tak- 
ing a holiday in China used to be (and I 
presume it is still popular) to go off for a 
week or so in a houseboat. Those craft — 
before the days of the luxurious and more 
speedy yacht — were either native boats 
converted to suit the foreign owner's habits^ 
or built expressly for him. I shall not take 
time to describe one fully, only I will say 
that we old-timers, who know both the 
houseboat and the steam yacht, unanimously 
give our preference to the former. 

There was always some purpose in these 
trips — a nominal one, if not really a se- 
rious one ; we went to shoot sea-fowls, or to 
catch fish, or to visit some temple or 
famous place. One cook and our "boys,'' 
as men's body-servants were called, accom- 
panied us, and two or three times a day a 

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fisherman would come alongside to offer 
live fish for sale; they had been caught in 
his nets and then kept alive in the well 
amidships of his boat, the water being fre- 
quently renewed. The hucksters would 
come with whatever they had, and occa- 
sionally, if we were in a very civilized sec- 
tion, the traveling butcher would pay us a 
visit. Fruits, nuts, sweetmeats (of their 
kind, and rarely purchased for us,) were 
plentiful; and with what we had in the 
well-supplied store room, we lived like 

If the Chinese do not vie with the Rus- 
sians in the consumption of caviare, they 
are certainly their rivals in eating the fiesh 
of the sturgeon. This fish is not, of course, 
found in the south; but in winter plenty are 
taken in the Sungari Biver, and other 
streams of Mongolia and Manchuria. The 
best of the captures used to be hurried off 
to Peking to be served at the imperial table, 
being considered a great delicacy. 

It is a mistake to suppose we have taught 
the Chinese much about harvesting ice to 
preserve provisions. Long ago they cut 
and stored ice — in the north of course — 
and made good use of it in Summer. The 
only thing we can claim in this matter is 
to have made the ice accessible to those who 
formerly could not afford to buy it, by 

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erecting plants for the manufacture of arti- 
ficial ice at some of the ports. Yet to show 
-how purely artificial is this taste for ice 
and iced drinks, I may say that during all 
the years of my first sojourn in China, I 
saw ice just once. The deep wells were 
quite sufficient to cool our drinks and pre- 
serve food. The Chinese themselves knew 
this as well as we did. 

When the time came for me to leave Swa- 
tow and return home, several of my na- 
tive friends joined together to entertain me 
at a farewell banquet. The invitations to 
this were sent to all the foreign men of the 
communily, excepting those who, our hosta 
knew well, were "not in our set.'' Those 
invitations were huge pieces of red paper 
on which an expert chirographist had writ- 
ten in beautiful Chinese script; not the 
usual request to come and " drink a cup of 
samshu/^ but to come and "partake of a 
modest meal in European style.'' My hosts 
engaged the whole of a large restaurant 
and then borrowed several cooks and a num- 
ber of " boys '' from the foreign households. 
They sent off to Hongkong for ice that cost 
them pretty nearly twenty-five cents a 
pound, and they did all they could to make 
it a very " swell " affair. They succeeded 
remarkably well, and if they themselves did 

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not actually enjoy the food, they certainly 
made a very clever pretense at doing so. 
Such entertainments are simply common- 
place now, but they were not so in Swatow 
in the middle of the last century. 

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OUB Chinese neighbors haye^ I think I 
may safely say, a feeling towards our- 
selves which is rather warmer and more 
friendly than is that which they have for 
some of the other peoples of the world. 
There never was any disposition on the part 
of the American government to compete 
with some of the European nations in get- 
ting possession of desirable ports along the 
Chinese coast. The "grab game'^ which 
began in the first half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, was never played by the United 

It seems hardly necessary to go over the 
whole record of this unfair and displeasing 
behavior of some other nations. Whether 
we say that the first move was that of Great 
Britain or that of Portugal, does not matter 
very much. The inevitable result of the 
attempt to force opium upon the Chinese 
was that Canton, the original dwelling 
place of foreigners in China, became al- 
together too inhospitable and the British 
merchants moved from that place to Macao ; 
but the latter place was not found to be 


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satisfactory in any way and so this com- 
munity moved to an almost uninhabited 
island which is now known as Victoria Is- 
land, and upon which has grown up the 
important city of Hongkong. 

Before long, and as the result of a war, 
that was victory for Great Britain and de- 
feat for China, this island was ceded to 
Great Britain. Since then Great Britain 
has obtained cession of a large tract north 
of Hongkong and across an arm of the sea. 
This extension is called Kowloon. Be- 
sides, Great Britain has a lease, which is 
nominally terminable in certain circum- 
stances, of Weihaiwei. 

When the war between China and Japan 
came to an end, the latter government asked 
and obtained a lease of the Liaotung Penin- 
sula. Then Russia, supported by Germany 
and France, compelled Japan to relinquish 
this concession, and in a very short time 
the lease was transferred to Russia. 
Thereupon Great Britain, unwilling to see 
such a rival getting a position of vantage, 
insisted upon having a lease of the port^ 
Weihaiwei, and the surrounding territory. 

Going back to Macao, the Portuguese 
rights at that place were secured by deceit. 
The French having despoiled China of ter- 
ritory in the southeastern part of Asia, 
trying to include the island of Hainan; 

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and the large colony Indo-China is tlie re- 
sult. Then Germany, apparently jealous 
of what her rivals were securing in China, 
obtained a lease of Kiaochao. The last- 
mentioned spoliation came as a result of 
something which could not have been made 
an excuse for " grabbing '' in any other part 
of the world. Some German missionaries 
were assaulted and murdered by a rabble in 
Shangtung Peninsula and Germany exacted 
heavy indemnity as well as the cession of a 
tract of land. The justification for this 
demand was about the same as if a mob in 
the United States should assault some 
Austro-Hungarian Slavs, and then the 
government of that country should take pos- 
session of a harbor on the New Jersey 
coast and demand a lease thereof which 
would amount practically to permanent 

In all of this appropriating of Chinese 
territory, the United States has taken no 
part and this fact has operated to our ad- 
vantage. The American government al- 
ways tried to prevent our citizens from tak- 
ing any part in the nefarious opium trade ; 
but China is so far away from us that it 
was impossible to control our merchants 
absolutely. But when the Chinese govern- 
ment and people evinced a disposition to 
stop the opium trade and to prevent culti- 

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vation of the poppy, our government and 
people have been more than willing to 
render every assistance possible. 

Bishop Brent, of the American Episco- 
pal Chnrch, whose diocese is the whole of 
onr Philippine possessions, was the chair- 
man of the international convention held 
at Shanghai to express the determination 
of practically all the Great Powers to assist 
China in obliterating the curse. With 
Bishop Brent were associated actively, rep- 
resentatives of all missionary bodies operat- 
ing in China, and there were also a number 
of influential merchants who lent their 
countenance to the commendable movement 
This has likewise had an excellent effect 
upon our Chinese neighbors. 

It is hardly necessary to dwell at any 
length upon the success of American mis- 
sionary bodies in their efforts along the 
most varied lines. Not only have they ex- 
erted themselves in the matter of Christian 
propaganda, but their men and women who 
were skilled in the healing art, as well as the 
great number of teachers who were not os- 
tensibly propagandists, have done a good 
work that has been appreciated by even the 
Manchu rulers, officials, and many manda- 
rins in all parts of the country. 

The recognition of the Republic of China 
which has been made by our government 

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was not as prompt as it might iiave been, 
and yet the foot that among the Great 
Powers we were the first to move in this 
matter has had the most salntary effect It 
is, however, rather donbtfol if the other 
Powers follow our example very promptly. 
We may be qnite snre that Bnssia will not 
do so if there is the remotest chance of sup- 
porting the Mongolians in their disposition 
to cut themselves off from their allegiance 
to the new Republic. 

It is not likely that Japan will be very 
prompt in following our example. Great 
Britain, Prance, Italy, and possibly Aus- 
tria-Hungary may recognize the Bepublic 
before long. Germany, also, may find it 
advisable to do the same thing and there 
is some indication of this to be found in the 
way in which the recent Chinese loan was 
subscribed for in both London and Berlin. 
That loan was opened for subscription on 
May 21, 1913, at the usual hour for begin- 
ning business in both of those financial cen- 
ters. By eleven o'clock in the forenoon the 
loan had been so heavily oversubscribed 
that the banks in both cities closed their 
lists. In a very short time options for se- 
curing blocks of the loan were selling at a 
premium of one per cent. In the face of 
this it seems hardly possible that the gov- 
ernments of both those countries can long 

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refuse to recognize the government of the 
country whose bonds they seem to appre- 
ciate so highly. 

The Chinese people, of course, have some 
feeling about the attitude of the United 
States towards Mongolians; that is but 
natural, for our Chinese neighbors are hu- 
man beings and are governed by the same 
sort of feelings as those which control our- 
selves. Yet it should always be remem- 
bered that the Manchu government was op- 
posed to their people going away from 
home, and did not encourage the Pacific 
Coast coolie traffic. It was contended that 
when a Chinese went away from home, un- 
less he secured official permission, most 
readily granted when the private trip was of 
a religious nature, he forfeited certain of his 
rights, and in some cases this i)osition was 
so strongly maintained that the expatriates 
were forbidden to return upon penalty of 

This view of the matter was not fully 
shared by the people of China generally, 
and con^quently they did not at all like to 
have the gates of America closed against 
them. Still, officially, the right of one na- 
tion to determine for itself what shall be 
done in such matters has never been dis- 
puted by competent Chinese publicists. It 
is probable, however, that there may come 

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260 ouB neighbors: the Chinese 

a movement in China to secnre for the peo- 
ple of that conntrj something akin to the 
treatment which the United States accords 
people from other parts of the world. 

Intelligent Chinese visitors to our coxm- 
try have availed themselves of the oppor- 
tunity to visit sections wherein the numbers 
of people of southeastern Europe are so 
great that frequently the visitor does not 
hear a word of English spoken. The 
character of many of these settlements, if 
the word may be properly used in such con- 
nection, is not one which inspires the visi- 
tor with great respect for a government 
which discriminates against the orderly, 
intelligent and hard-working Mongolian in 
favor of the oftentimes turbulent and lazy 

There should be some consideration given 
to the fact that while the United States was 
one of the latest of the Western Powers to 
become acquainted with the Chinese, yet 
the first truly important mission which the 
Chinese government sent abroad was under 
the personal supervision of an American 
diplomat, Anson Burlingame, who tried 
earnestly to impress upon the people of 
America, and Europe as well, that the Chi- 
nese government and people were entitled 
to consideration. There is no disposition 
here to overlook the fact that Burlingame's 

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enthusiasm led him almost too far, yet had 
his plea been reasonably successful it is 
probable conditions would now be some- 
what different from what they are. In the 
important countries of the world, there 
seems to be none of the abject fear of the 
Mongolian which is conspicuous in parts of 
the United States. Yet our Chinese neigh- 
bors know as well as we do that the greater 
part of the opposition to them in the United 
States comes from, or is influenced by, peo- 
ples who are not themselves true Ameri- 

The recognition of the Eepublic must, I 
think, go a little further than the merely 
perfunctory act. The old China was an 
almost immovable body; it was only by the 
most strenuous effort that a little of the 
inertia was overcome here and there; but - 
when it was possible to persuade officials 
and landed proprietors to try the experi- 
ment of building railways and opening up 
resources of various kinds, the profitableness 
of the ventures became apparent at once. 
Such possibilities have scarcely more than 
reached the experimental stage of exploita- 
tion. If they are to be pushed forward it 
must be as an accompaniment to the recogni- 
tion of China's integrity. In this view of 
the case, the world has a duty towards the 
Chinese Republic which must be recognized 

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even if that recognition means to interfere 
on China's behalf with the illegitimate 
plans of Bussia, Japan, and possibly other 

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Ball, J. Dyer, Things Chinese, 1904. 
Ball, J. Dyer, The Chinese at home, 1911. 
Bard, E., Chinese life in town and coimtry, 1905. 
Beach, H. P., Dawn on the hills of T'ang, 1905. 
Beaks, H. A., China, 1909. 
Blakeslee, G. H., China and the Par East, 1910. 
Bland, J. 0. P., Houseboat life in China, 1909. 
Bland, J. 0. P., Recent eyents and present policies 

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Bland, J. 0. P., and Backhouse, E., China under 

the empress dowager, 1910. 
Brown, A. J., New forces in old China, 1904. 
Brown, A. J., China's revolutions, 1912. 
Brown, C. C, China in legend and story, 1907. 
Brown, C. C, The children of China, 1910. 
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China, 1911. 
Burton, Mary E., Notable women of modem 

China, 1912. 
Candler, Edmund, The unveiling of Lhasa, 1905. 
Cantlie, J., Sun Yat Sen and the awakening of 

China, 1912. 

d by Google 


Carl, Katharine A., With the empress dowager, 

Cecil, William G. and P. M., Changing China, 

Chau Ju-kua, Chinese and Arabian trade, 1913. 

China centenary missionary conference, Shanghai, 

Colqiihoun, A. B., China in transformation, 1912. 

Conger, S., Old China and young America,. 1913. 

Cranmer-Byng, Lancelot Alfred, tr., A lute of 
jade, being selections from the classical poets 
of China, 1909. 

Crosby, 0. T., Tibet and Turkestan; a journey 
through old lands and a study of new condi- 
tions, 1905. 

Curtin, J., The Mongols, 1908. 

Curtin, J., Journey in Southern Siberia, 1909. 

Curtis, William Elyery, Turkestan, "the heart of 
Asia,'* 1911. 

Deasy, Henry H. P., In Tibet and Chinese Turk- 
estan, 1901. 

Denby, Charles, China and her people, 1906. 

Dingle, E. J., Across China on foot, 1911. 

Dingle, E. J., China's reyolution, 1911-1912, 1912. 

Elias, P., The Par East: China, Korea, and 
Japan, 1911. 

Perguson, W. N"., Adventure, sport, and travel on 
the Tibetan steppes, 1911. 

Geil, William E., The great wall of China, 1909. 

Qeil, William E., The eighteen capitals of China, 

d by Google 


(Jerrare, W., Greater Eussia [Manchuria], 1904. 
Giles, Herbert A., The religions of ancient China. 
Giles, Herbert A., China and the Chinese, 1902. 
Giles, Herbert A., The civilization of China, 1911. 
Giles, Herbert A., China and the Manchus, 1912. 
Goodrich, J. K., The coming China, 1911. 
Gowen, H. H., Outline history of China, 1913. 
Grew, J. C, Sport and travel in the Far East, 

Groot, J. J. M. de. The religion of the Chinese, 

Gulick, Sidney L., The white peril in the Far 

East, 1905. 
Headland, Isaac T., Chinese Mother Goose 

Ehymes, 1900. 
Headland, Isaac T., Chinese boys and girls, 1901. 
Headland, Isaac T., Our little Chinese cousin, 

Headland, Isaac T., Court life in China, 1909. 
Headland, Isaac T., China's new day, 1912. 
Hedin, Sven A., Through Asia, 1899. 
Hedin, Sven A., Central Asia and Tibet, 1903. 
Hedin, Sven A., Trans-Himalaya, 1909. 
Hedley, J., Tramps in dark Mongolia, 1910. 
Hirth, P., Ancient history of China, 1908. 
Holcombe, Chester, The real Chinese question, 

Holcombe, Chester, The real China, 1909. 
Holdich, Thomas H., Tibet, the mysterious, 1909. 
Hooker, M., Behind the scenes in Peking, 1911. 
Jack, E. L., The back blocks of China, 1904. 
Jack, E. L., The great wall of China, 1911. 

d by Google 


Jemigan, Thomas B., China in law and com- 
merce, 1905. 

Johnston, B. P., The lion and dragon in northern 
China, 1910. 

Kemp, E. O., The face of Manchuria, Korea, and 
BuBsian Turkestan, 1911. 

Kendall, E. K., A wayfarer in China, 1913. 

Kent, P. H., The passing of the Manchus, 1912. 

Knox, George W., The spirit of the Orient, 1906. 

Koo, V. K. W., Status of aliens in China, 1912. 

Lanfer, B., Jade: a study in Chinese archaeology 
and religion, 1912. 

Landon, Percival, The opening of Tibet, 1905. 

Landor, A. H. S., In the forbidden land [Tibet], 

Landor, A. H. S., An explorer's adventures in 
Tibet, 1910. 

Lawton, L. P., Empires of the Par East, 2v., 1912. 

Lesdain, J., From Pekin to Sikkim through the 
Ordos, the Gobi desert, and Tibet, 1908. 

Lewis, B. E., The educational conquest of the 
Par East, 1903. 

Liddell, T. H., China: its monuments and mys- 
tery, 1910. 

Little, A. J., The Par East, 1905. 

Little, A. J., Gleanings from fifty years in China, 

McCormick, P., The Plowery Eepublic, 1913. 

Macgowan, John, Sidelights on Chinese life, 

d by Google 


Macgowan^ John^ Men and manners of northern 
China, 1912. 

McKenzie, Frederick A., The unveiled East, 1907. 

Martin, William A. P., A cycle of Cathay, 1896. 

Martin, William A. P., The lore of Cathay, 1901. 

Martin, William A. P., The awakening of China, 

Martin, William A. P., Lore of Cathay, or, the 
intellect of China, 1912. 

Morris, C, Historical tales: the romance of real- 
ity, 1898. 

Morse, Edward S., Glimpses of China and Chinese 
homes, 1902. 

Moule, A. E., My half century in China, 1911. 

Norman, Henry, Peoples and politics of the Ear 
East, 1896. 

OUone, H. M. G., In forbidden China, 1912. 

Osgood, E. A., Breaking down of Chinese walls, 

Parker, Edward H., Ancient China simplified, 

Parker, Edward H., John Chinaman and a few 
others, 1909. 

Parker, Edward H., Studies in Chinese religion, 

Pitman, N". H., Chinese playmates; or, the boy 
gleaners, 1902. 

Pott, P. L. H., A sketch of Chinese history, 1904. 

Pumpelly, Eaphael, Explorations in Tibet, 1905. 

Rockhill, William W., Inquiry into the popula- 
tion of China, 1904. 

Eoe, Edward A., China as I saw it, 1910. 

d by Google 


Boss, Edward A., The changing Chinese, 1911. 

Boss, John, The original religion of China, 1909. 

Sergeant, P. W., The great empress dowager of 
China, 1911. 

Sherring, Charles A., Western Turkestan and the 
British borderiand, 1906. 

Smith, Ariihur Henderson, Chinese characteristics, 

Smith, Arthur Henderson, Village life in China; 
a study in sociology, 1899. 

Stein, M. M., Ancient Khotan, 1907. 

Stein, M. M., Euins of ancient Cathay, 2v., 1912. 

Stretton, C. E., Picturesque China ; or, the flowery 
kingdom, 1910. 

Thomson, John S., The Chinese, 1909. 

Townley, S. M., My Chinese notebook, 1904. 

Tsu, T. T., The spirit of Chinese philanthropy, 

Underwood, H. G., Eeligion of eastern Asia, 1910. 

Vay de Vaza, A., Empires and emperors of Eus- 
sia, China, Korea, and Japan, 1911. 

Waddel, Laurence Austine, Lhasa and its neigh- 
bors, 1905. 

Weale, B. L. Putnam [B. L. Simpson], The 
truce in the East and its aftermath, 1907. 

Weale, B. L. Putnam [B. L. Simpson], Man- 
chu and Muscovite, 1909. 

Weale, B. L. Putnam [B. L. Simpson], Indis- 
creet letters from Peking, [1907] 1911. 

Weeks, C. W., The story of China plate, 1912. 

White, Mrs. T. C, Princess Der Ling, Two years 
in the forbidden city, 1911. 

d by Google 


Wildman, Eoimsevelle, China's open door; a 

sketch of Chinese life and history, 1900. 
Williams, I. B., By the great wall, 1909. 
Wilson, Andrew, "The ever victorious army'' 

["Chinese'* Gordon's Taeping campaign], 

Wood, J. N". P., Travel and sport in Turkestan, 

Wu Ting-fang, The awakening of China, 1908. 

d by Google 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized byCjOOQlC 


Aborigines, 13 

Access to Chinese homes, 

Adyanced Chinese women, 

Agriculture in China, 26, 
94. . 

American classification of 
Chinese, 23. 

Ammianus - Marcellinus, 
historian, 196. 

Ancestor worship, 73 

Ancestral line, importance, 

Ana mau hui, "red-haired 
devils," 151. 

Animal flesh as medicine, 
etc., 246. 

Appeal of Chinese Govern- 
ment to Christian peo- 
ples, 61. 

Archery, 214. 

Arches, memorial, 234. 

Areas of China, 22. 

Astrologers and doctors, 
Chinese, in southwest- 
ern Asia, 201. 

Athletics, 110; modem, 

Babylonians, 6. 
Ball, J. Dyer, 223. 
Bank-notes, early Chinese, 

89, 90. 
Banquet, farewell, 262. 
Baptism now popular, 217. 


Barbers, 97. 

Beauty of Chinese women, 

Beef and mutton liked, 

Betrothal, 76. 

"Book of Changes," 66. 

"Book of Odes,'^66. 

Boys, in imperial palace, 
207; of Manchu fam- 
ilies, 216; others, 217. 

Boys' games. 111. 

Brent, Bishop, 267. 

Bride, lonely home life, 80. 

Burlingame, A., 260. 

Calendar trees, 62. 

"Capping verses," 110. 

Carpino, Friar John de 
Piano, 87. 

Carriage driving, 106. 

Carriages, 231. 

Catching fish, 249. 

Catenary curve of roofs, 

"Cathay," derivation of 
name, 198; now a poeti- 
cal term, 199. 

Ceremony at graves, 104. 

Ceres [Seres], land of, 

Character of former edu- 
cation, 62. 

Chi Hwangti, destruction 
of books, 47, 48; his 
superstition, 129. 

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China, areas, 22; as a 
united State, 16; deriya- 
tion of name, 47; early 
knowledge of, 194; na- 
tural features, 24; popu- 
lation, 23. 

"China's Sorrow/' Hoang- 
ho, 27. 

Chinese, a yellow people, 
149; civil engineers, 69; 
confusion of, 141; demo- 
cratic, 171 ; education, 
24 ; fastidious about 
food, 248; feeling about 
American exclusion of 
Mongolians, 259; feeling 
towards Americans, 254; 

Slrls and women as pub- 
c speakers, 230; his- 
tory, 7; industrious, 87, 
90; knowledge of Roman 
Empire, 197; oblique 
eyes, a fiction, 140; pas- 
toral and agricultural 
people, 12; sanitary eat- 
ers, 246; settlement in 
Shensi, 12; visitors to 
U. S. criticize discrim- 
ination, 260; who are 
they? 2. 

Chinese flag, 20. 

Chinese gourmets, 146. 

Chou dynasty, 14. 

Christian Chinese formerly 
debarred from Civil Ser- 
vice, 60. 

Chung-Kwoh, "Middle 
Kingdom," 9. 

Civil engineers, Chinese, 

Classes, society, 45, 63. 

Classics, commentaries on, 

Clever military trick, 50. 

CofSn-makers, 100. 

Commercial intercourse, 

Comprehensive education, 

recent, 68. 
Confucius, 53, 128. 
Conservatism of Chinese 

farmers, 261. 
Consideration for women, 

Cormorants, fishing, 250. 
Creation myths, 30, 31. 
Cricket-fights, 109. 
Cruelty of courtiers, 128. 
Curtin, J., 155. 

Deforestation of China, 

Der Ling, Princess, 139. 

Desai-chan, father-in-law 
of Genghis Khan, 169. 

Destruction of the Clas- 
sics, 46. 

Difference, facial, Chinese 
and Caucasians, 151. 

Difference between peoples 
of China, 141. 

Dignity t)f commercial 
men, 115. 

Dissipation at Court, 127. 

Distinction between liter- 
ati and others, 114. 

Dogs, cats, and rats, as 
food, 244. 

Dominican missionaries, 

Doolittle, J., "Social Life 
of the Chinese," 69. 

Draft animals, 232. 

Dwellings, 82. 

Dzungaria, 189. 

Earth, myth of evolution, 

Education, now consistent, 

67; specialized, 24. 

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Effect of recent wars, 67. 

Empress Dowager, the 
great, 139, 208. 

Engineers, Chinese, on Ti- 
gris River, 200. 

Essays, 66. 

Europeans' acquisition of 
Chinese territory, 266. 

Evolution of man, theo- 
ries, 2. 

Falconry, 216. 

Fan kwei, "foreign devils," 

Farmers, conservative, 26. 

Fishermen, 96. 

Five units of Chinese Re- 
public, 21. 

Flag, Chinese, 20, 21. 

Folk-lore, 57. 

Food in the interior, 241. 

Foot battledore and shut- 
tlecock, 110. 

"Forcing the City Gates," 
game like Prisoners' 
Base, 112. 

Foreign athletics, 113. 

Former education of chil- 
dren, 69. 

Franciscan missionaries, 

Fuh-hi, first of "The Five 
Emperors," 36. 

Fung-8hui, 30. 

Gastronomies, 147. 

Genghis Eiian, 156; in- 
vasion of China, 162; 
legends about, 167. 

Giles, H. A., on "Story of 
the Three Kingdoms," 

Girls, Confucian neglect 
of their education, 226; 
dress, 226; generally. 

221 ; improvement in 
their education, 226; in 
imperial palace, 220; 
life not usually hard, 
226; their advance, 227, 

Go-between, marriage, 74. 

Gobineau, Count, on races 
of man, 3. 

Gordon, "Chinese," 187. 

Gossiping, 106. 

"Grab game" of land, 

Graves, 103. 

Guilds, 116. 

Gutzlaff, Charles, 66. 

Hair-dressing, 144. 

Hair, growth, 159. 

Han dynasty, 132. 

Headland, I. T., 139; chil- 
dren's games. 111. 

Headley, John, 181. 

Hedin, Sven, 167, 192. 

Himalaya Mountains, 168. 

Hoang-ho, Yellow River, 
"China's Sorrow," 27. 

Home-life, 83. 

Honesty of Chinese mer- 
chants, 96. 

"Honored Ones," 7. 

Hotels, 240. 

Houseboat life, 260. 

Houses, 243. 

Hue, Abb^, experience with 
Chinese surgeon, 89. 

Hwang-ti, his benefac- 
tions, 39. 

Ice harvesting, 251. 
Ideographs, explanation, 

Imitation, Chinese adept, 

Infanticide, 222. 

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Influence of dissolute 

women, 131. 
Insignia of literati, 122. 
Internal waterways, 8. 
Islamism introduced, 183. 

Jumping to a conclusion, 

Eao Ti'g ruse, 132. 
Ka-pue, fortune-telling, 

Keramio art, possibilities, 

Kite-flying, 109. 
Klaproth, J., 130. 
Koran, objection to its 

translation, 164. 
Kwang HsQ, late emperor, 


Lakes, 28. 

Language, differences, 142. 

Lassen, C, German Orient- 
alist, 195. 

Later intercourse, Chinese 
and Europeans, 203, 214. 

Literati, obstructionists, 

Literature, 46. 

Lost art, keramic, may be 
recovered, 93. 

Low classes, 120. 

Mahometan mosques in 
China, 181. 

Mahometan rebellions in 
China, 186, et seq. 

Mahometans in China, 
180; friendly to Euro- 
peans, 181; their indus- 
tries, 190-193. 

Malthusianism, 221. 

Mamelukes, 166. 

Manchu Government op- 
posed to foreigners, 204. 

Manchu monopoly of of- 
fices, 138. 

Manchuria, 123. 

Manchurians, 166. 

Man's pleasures, 110. 

**Man-wheel," boys* game, 

Markets, 96. 

Marriage, 72; go-between, 
74; imperial princesses 
and strangers, 224. 

Married life, 81. 

"Matching rhymes," 110. 

Maternal instinct, 112. 

Men of T'ang, 10. 

Merchant class, position 
higher than in Japan, 

Migrations, 8. 

•'Milky Way," legend, 42. 

Ming dynasty, 138. 

Modern examination papers, 

Mongol, definition, 154; 
etymology of woi>d, 156; 
incursions, 166. 

Mongol army, 163. 

Mongolia, 23, 164. 

Mongols and Manchus dif- 
ferent from Chinese, 

Monopoly of offices by 
Manchus, 138. 

Moon legend, 41. 

Mosques in Chinese Ee- 
public, 184. 

"Mother," the deity, 59. 

Mukden's tombs, 166. 
Myths about heavenly 
bodies, 40. 

Native entertainment, 148. 

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Natural features of China, 

Nature, principals of, 32. 

Needles, connection with 
marriage, 78. 

Neglect of girls' educa- 
tion, 65. 

Negligee at home, 85. 

New Year's festivities, 

Occupations, differences in, 

Open-air barbers, 99. 
Opium trade, 256. 
"Outside Barbarians," 10. 

Pariah class, none, 119. 

"Pastor Princes," 9. 

"Peking Gazette," 143. 

Physicians, foreign, their 
importance, 71. 

Physical appearance of the 
Chinese, 144, 148. 

Physical conditions, early, 

Pictorial art, decline of, 

Playmates for an imperial 
prince, 216. 

Pleasures for an imperial 
prince, few, 214. 

Polo, the family, 3, 89, 
137 ; made China known, 

Polo, Marco, his narrative, 
201, 224. 

Political parties, 121. 

Polyandry, repulsive fea- 
tures, 173. 

Polygamy and concubi- 
nage, 79. 

Population of China, 22. 

Portuguese in China, 202. 

Position of married wom- 
an, not affected by 
former life, 117. 

Poultry plentiful, 248. 

Poverty of the Chinese, 

"Prayer-wheel," 176. 

Prince, an imperial; his 
training, 239 et aeq.; 
few pleasures, 214; play- 
mates, 216. 

Privacy, lack of in home, 

Privileged classes, offi- 
cials, 122. 

Provincial governors, 16. 

Ptolemy on the country of 
Serice, 196. 

Public schools^ 62. 

Pwanku, 32. 

Races of mankind, 3. 
Railways, 240. 
Recognition of Chinese 

Republic, 267, 261. 
"Red Cords" at marriage, 

legend of, 77. 
Reforms, early proposals, 

Reinaud, J. F., French 

Orientalist, 195. 
Religious belief now free, 

Republican form of gov- 
ernment in China, 17. 
Rice, cooking of, 145. 
Ricold of Monte Croce, 

Friar, 200. 
River craft, 236. 
River valleys, 26. 
Rivers of eastern Asia, 27. 
Roads, 231. 

Roofs, catenary curve, 12. 
Rubruquis, Friar, 87. 

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Batnahu, liquor, 109. 
School, an old-time, 63. 
Scope of former education, 

Scrolls in mosques, 185. 
Sea-food, 249. 
Secret societies, 121. 
Sedan-chairs, 100. 238. 
"Selecting Fruit,'^ a game, 

Semi-foreign residences, 

Serea, China, 194, 196. 
Sexes do not mingle in 

society, 121. 
Shaying the boy's head, 

Shensi settlement by 

Chinese, 12. 
"Showing the Fist," a 

game like mora, 113. 
Silk culture, its begin- 
ning, 40. 
Small feet, 118. 
Socialism in China, 18. 
Social lines in China, 

Sons of Han, 10, 11. 
Soothsayers and similar 

classes, 123. 
Spirit-rapping, 125. 
Splendor in palace, 129. 
Sports, for boys. 111; for 

girls, 107. 
Stage, the, not reputable, 

Stein, M. A., 192. 
Stories about betrothal 

and marriage, 76. 
Sui-jin, a mythical per- 
sonage, 35. 
Sung emperors, patrons of 

arts and letters, 136. 
Sun Yat-sen, 68. 
Sz-ma Ts'ien, historian, 14. 

Temujin, Genghis Khan, 
career, 16. 

l>errien de Lacouperie, 
theory about Chinese, 5, 

Theatrical performances, 

"The Faithful Gander," 
folk-lore tale, 53. 

Theories of human evolu- 
tion, 3, 5. 

"Three Kingdoms," Story 
of the, 49. 

"Three mythical person- 
ages," the, 34. 

Tibet, 167, 168; "fields," 
170; traveling in, 175. 

Tibeta^, dwellings, 174; 
false claim to pure 
Buddhism, 176; monas- 
teries, 175; poverty, 171; 
religions, 175-177; wom- 
en, 173. 

Tibetans, marriage cus- 
toms, polyandry, 170- 
172; Mongoloid family, 

Hme, how measured, 52. 

"Tip-cat," a game, 112. 

Toy-making, 96. 

Training of boys, 216. 

Traitors, the three great- 
est, 133. 

"Treating," not common, 

Trigrams, ktoa, 37. 

Troublesome citizens, 1. 

Ts'ao Ts'ao, traitor, 135. 

Tung Chao, traitor, 134. 

Turkestan, Chinese 188. 

Vehicles 231. 

Visit to family tombs, 102. 

Wang An-shih, socialist, 

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INDEX 279 

Wang Mang, traitor, 133. Worshiping at tombs, 103. 
Wang, a Mahometan, his 

duplicity, 182. Yang, a principle of Ka- 

Water traveling preferred, ture, 32. 

236. Yellow race, age, dignity. 

Wedding, 75. origin, 4. 

Wheelbarrow, 233. Yu, a principle of Nature, 

Williams, S. W., '*The 32. 

Middle Kingdom," 69. Yu-chau, famous mytho- 

Writing, invention of, 39. logical character, 35. 

Written language, 53. Yule, H., on earlv defini- 

Woman's pleasures, 101. tion of "Ghina,'^ 197. 

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